Historically, anthraquinone
dyes obtained from the roots of various species of Rubia and other plants of the family Rubiaceae have been used for
millennia as sources of red dyes for textiles.1,26 They enjoyed commercial success
around the world through many centuries, until their market collapsed with the
developments followed by synthesis of first artificial anthraquinone-based dye,
alizarin, in 1869.

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