Abstract This paper explain about hunger, hunger in
This paper explain about hunger, hunger in general,
what causes hunger, how to overcome hunger, hunger situation in Indonesia and
hunger from Pancasila point of view. Pancasila as Indonesia’s ideology has five
principles that have a lot of values. Hunger in general explain about the
definition of hunger it self and how hunger seen by people by people all around
the world. What causes hunger explain about causes and reason that make people
suffer hunger and why hunger exist. How to overcome hunger explain about things
that we can do to prevent and overcome hunger. Hunger situation in Indonesia
explain about the current hunger situation that’s in Indonesia right now and
what the people and the government know about the hunger in Indonesia. Hunger
from Pancasila point of view explain about how Pancasila sees the hunger
problem based on their five principle, and how to uses the Pancasila values to
overcome and prevent hunger in Indonesia. All of the data in this paper is
based on the information and references from the news and article in the
Keywords : Hunger, Indonesia, Pancasila.
Background of Problem
There’s still a lot of people in this world who suffer
hunger, including in Indonesia. Hunger is one of the major problem in Indonesia
and yet a lot of people in Indonesia doesn’t know about this problem. While the
people who knows and aware about this problem doesn’t know how to overcome
hunger because they didn’t know the causes of hunger in Indonesia.
A lot of people doesn’t take this problem seriously
because it doesn’t affect their lives. The government has the solution for this
problem by having programs that helps people who suffer hunger. But this
programs doesn’t run very affectively because of the injustice from the
government, such as corruption that’s being done by the government itself.
Those who do corruption in the government only think about themselves and
doesn’t think about the impacts that they caused. The injustice bring the
biggest impact to those people who have low income.
Those people who have low income, usually have no
opportunities because of the injustice that the government brings. Many people
can’t afford to buy food for themselves and their families. Many children
suffers hunger and malnutrition. In their early age, they should have enough
nutrition because they need all of the nutrition for their growth.
What is the
definition of hunger?
What is the causes
How is the hunger
situation in Indonesia?
What can the
government do to reduce hunger in Indonesia?
How is hunger seen
from Pancasila perspective?
The Purpose of This Paper
1. To know the definition of hunger.
2. To know the reasons that cause hunger.
3. To understand hunger situation in Indonesia.
4. To know what we and government can do to reduce hunger
5. To understand hunger in Pancasila perspective.
Definition of Hunger
on Cambridge Dictionary, hunger means in need for food, the feeling you have
when you need to eat or a situation in which the body does not have enough
food. But hunger is not just a stomach problem, it usually refer to the
distress associated with lack of food. Lack of food leads to undernourishment
happen when inadequate intake of food (quantity or quality), poor utilizarion
of nutrients due to infections or other illness, or a combination of these
factors. While malnutrition refers more broadly to both undernutrition and
overnutrition, problems of unbalanced diets.
The Causes of Hunger
The world produces enough food
to feed the entire global population of 7 billion people. But still, there’s a
lot of people on this planet who goes to
bed hungry every night. Here’s the biggest question of all, why does hunger
exist when there’s enough food to feed the entire global population?
According to World Food
Programme, there are some basic reasons that causes hunger:
People who live in poverty can’t afford to buy nutritious
food which makes them weaker, physically and mentally. Therefore they can’t
earn enough money to help them escape from poverty and hunger. Children that
are malnourished or stunted, often grow up to be adults with low incomes. They
are trapped to a life of poverty and hunger.
Lack of invesment
There are a lot of developing countries lack the
roads, warehouses and irrigation systems that would help overcome hunger.
Without this infrastructure, communities are facing high transport costs, and
unreliable water supplies which conspire to limit farmers’ yields and families’
access to food.
Floods, tropical storms and long periods of drought
are some examples of natural disasters that causes hunger. Drought is one of
the most common causes of food shortages in the world.
Conflicts consistently disrupt farming and food
production. Fights also forces millions of people to leave their homes, leading
to hunger emergencies. Sometimes food becomes a weapon in a war. Soldiers will
starve opponents into submission by seizing or destroying food and livestock
and systematically demolitioning local markets.
Unstable food prices make it difficult for poor people
to get nutritious food. When prices rise, those who have low incomes often
shift to cheaper, less nutritious foods that leads to malnutrition.
One third of all food produced is never consumed which represents a
missed opportunity to improve global food security in a world where one in eight
The world is moving forward,
yet there’s still a lot of people who suffer hunger. Those who suffer hunger
are trapped in poverty. Poverty is the main reason for hunger. Those who suffer
poverty can’t afford to fulfill their daily needs, such as nutritious food,
clean water and education.
Hunger Situation in Indonesia
According to the latest FAO’s research, there are
still 19,4 million people suffering hunger in Indonesia. Even though Indonesia is
developing, there still a lot of people in Indonesia who can’t afford to
fulfill their basic needs, especially in eastern Indonesia, such as Papua, NTT
and Maluku. The main reason for this problem is poverty.
In 2016, according to BBC Indonesia, those who lives
in NTT are threatened to hunger. NNT is located on the east side of Indonesia
which has a dry climate. This dry climate somehow leads to drought in NTT.
Drought makes it hard for people in NTT to have a clean water access.
In accordance with Global
Hunger Index (GHI) in 2016, the level of hunger in Indonesia is still at a
serious level, undernourishment reach 7,6%, child wasting reach 13,55 and child
stunting reach 36,4%. Despite the GHI is still relatively high, it reach a
lower level than in 2008.
Based on the news above, we can see that hunger in
Indonesia is still at a serious level even though it’s decreasing year by year.
The main reason for hunger is poverty. There’s still a lot of people who
suffers poverty which makes them can’t afford to fulfill their basic needs,
such as clean water, nutritious food and education.
2.4 The Government Roles in Reducing Hunger
Hunger is one of the biggest concern in Indonesia.
Even though hunger is a huge problem, it can be overcome little by little.
Hunger is a solvable problem, the key to overcome this problem is a good
coordination between the government and the people itself.
Government has the biggest role in reducing hunger.
There’s a lot of effort that can be done to reduce hunger, such as giving
subsidy to farmers so that they can produce high quality food in large
quantities. It is expected to increase food production and also farmers’
income. If the farmers’ income are increasing, they can afford to fulfill their
daily needs. Subsidy is important since Indonesian’s farmers are known to live
below the line, which means a lot of them are suffering from poverty. With this
subsidy, the farmers can produce high quality food that can be high valued so
later they can afford nutritious food for their families.
Other than subsidy for farmers, government can also
take action in education sector. There’s still a lot of people in Indonesia who
doesn’t have an access to education. Lack of education makes people can’t have
a decent job to support their lives. With a world that’s always moving forward,
education become the most important thing. Those who are educated can have a
job that can support their lives. In improving education sector, the government
can start from village to village. Villages have a huge role in food production
and livestocks. The education that’s given to the villagers doesn’t have to a
formal one, it can be farming education or livestock education.
About improving education sector, the government
already have a program called Bantuan
Operasional Sekolah (BOS). BOS is a government program that provide school
funds for elementary school and junior high school as a accomplishment of 9-year compulsory
education. This program should be expended and optimalized to improve the
education in Indonesia.
Other than subsidy for farmers and improving education
sector, the government should stabilize the markets using a price ceiling
scheme. A price ceiling is a government imposed price control or limit on how
high a price is charged for a product or in this case for a food. If the price
on the markets are too high, the middle to lower class cannot afford to buy
nutritious food. This situation force them to lower the standard of their food,
lower the qualities and quantities which leads them to buy less nutritious food
on the market.
For example, when the chicken’s price is at
Rp50.000,00 to Rp60.000,00, not everyone can afford it so they choose to bought
a cheaper one which has a lower quality compared to the normal chicken on the
market. This low quality chicken may not have the same nutrition as the normal
chicken and may cause several disease for those who consumed this chicken. Based
on this example, we know that it’s very important for the government to control
the price on the market so that everyone can afford to buy a nutritious food. .
Hunger in Pancasila Point of View
Pancasila is Indonesia’s ideology which concists of
two Sanskrit words, the first one is “panca” means five and the second one is
“sila” means principles. Pancasila has five principles that was taken from the
cultural values of Indonesia’s ancestors. The five principles of Pancasila are:
Belief in the one
and only God.
Just and civilized
The unity of
by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst
Social justice for
the whole of the people of Indonesia.
Based on those principles, it can be inferred that
from the very start, people of Indonesia uphold the values of divine, humanity, unity, democracy and social
justice. Even though there’s Pancasila with its five principles, it doesn’t
change the fact that there’s a lot of injustice happening in Indonesia. Corruption
is one of the example of injustice. The injustice that’s happening in Indonesia,
especially corruption have a big impact on those who are not wealthy enough.
There’s a lot of problem that’s being caused by injustice, such as hunger.
Hunger is a violent for human rights. As a human
being, people have the right to fulfill their needs. In this case, human need
food in order to survive. It is very unfair that while some people are
suffering hunger, a lot food is being wasted by those who are wealthy. We can
take a lot from the values of Pancasila to overcome this problem, such as from
the third principle “the unity of Indonesia.” The people of Indonesia have to
unite in order to help those in need without looking at their social class or
To help those in need, we can start from our
neighbourhood. According to Pikiran Rakyat, the people in Karyamekar Village, Purwakarta
has been doing social work called ‘beras perelek’ for the past years. Every
household in this village hang bamboo on the outside wall of their houses as a
container for rice. The villagers filled the bamboo with rice everyday and in
the nighttime the rice is taken by the patrol officer so he can give the rice
to the people that cannot afford to buy rices.
The example above shows us that we can do little thing
to help people starting from our own neighbourhood. Every action that we make
to help people, even if we’re just doing little things, it did matters and can
bring big impact to the people that we help.
Based on the analysis above, we know that hunger is a
serious problem that needs to be taken care of. Hunger is more than just a
stomach problem, it usually refer to malnutrition and undernourishment. The
main cause of hunger is poverty because those who suffer poverty cannot afford
to buy nutritious food, which is what we need on a daily basis.
There’s a lot of thing we can do to overcome hunger,
such as give to those in need. But giving free food won’t reduce hunger, it
simply just making a person’s life better for one day. It doesn’t do anything
for long term need. We cannot overcome hunger by ourselves, but the government
with our help can. The government has the biggest role in overcoming hunger.
The government can stabilize the market by controlling the price ceiling. With
a stable market, it is possible to overcome hunger. Other than stabilize the
market, the government can also give subsidy for the farmers and last but not
least is to improve the education sector.
From Pancasila point of view, as a writer I can
conclude that the injustice that’s happening in Indonesia is one of the main
reason for hunger. To overcome hunger, we must implement the values of Pancasila
in our daily live and not take the values of Pancasila lightly.