All these cells can be divided into two



All living things are made of calls, also these cells can be divided
into two groups: PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC. Humans and all multicellular
organisms are made of a type of cell called EUKARYOTIC cells. What makes a cell eukaryotic, is usually
eukaryotic cells are much larger than prokaryotes, and they’re also eukaryotic
cells also found in multicellular organisms, although there are single cellular
eukaryotes such as certain protests. The most important thing that eukaryotic
cells possess that prokaryotic don’t is the idea of compartmentalization, this
mean that the cell is divided into different compartments, whereas prokaryotic
cells doesn’t appear to have many different compartments. The reason why
eukaryotic cell has lots of different compartments within it, is because the
compartmentalization of the eukaryotic cell has different compartments allows
each different compartment to have a different function. This is important in
the complex needs of cells. The name for these compartments in the eukaryotic
cell is organelles. Just like your body has different organs that have
different functions, your heart pumps blood, your lungs take in oxygen,
different organelles in the cell have different functions. These organelles are
separated from other parts of the cell by membranes, and the name “eukaryotic”
comes from one of these organelles (compartmentalization and Organelles-
“Membrane Bound”). When scientists originally looked at the eukaryotic cells,
they saw a well-formed circular object in the centre that looked kind of like a
nut. And so, they called these cells “eukaryotes” because they had a
well-formed nut in the centre of the cell. This nut is what we now know as the
nucleus. The nucleus is a circular membrane-bound organelle that contains all
the genetic material in the cell, so all your chromosomes are inside the
nucleus. This separates them from the outside of the of the cell. The nucleus
is the defining organelle of eukaryotic cells. In contrast, prokaryotic cells
have their genetic material as well as everything else in the cell just kind of
floating around all in one big space.

And so, prokaryotes, to divide and become new cells, all they must do is
make two copies of everything, and then split down the middle in a process
called “Binary fission”. But in eukaryotes we can see that there because the
cell has these different compartments or organelles, there is a more complex
way to divide into a new cell, and the process that eukaryotic cells use to
divide is called “mitosis”.

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So, these are the defining characteristics/structure of eukaryotic cells
that sets them apart from prokaryotic cells, other important organelle within eukaryotic
cells. Going back to nucleus I kind of think of as the control centre of the
cell because that’s where all the DNA is, and where DNA is transcribed into
mRNA. Probably the next most important organelle in the body are called
mitochondria. Mitochondria is the cell’s power plant because mitochondria are
the site of cellular respiration where glucose is converted into ATP, to
provide the energy for everywhere else in the cell. The next organelle is
called the Endoplasmic reticulum; this is primarily the side of protein
synthesis. mRNA, which is transcribed from DNA in the nucleus, translated at
the endoplasmic reticulum. So, I think of endoplasmic reticulum as the factory
of the cell where proteins are produced, after these proteins are produced they
send to another organelle that has kind of a lot of folded membrane structure,
but it’s not a continuous compartment like endoplasmic reticulum. And this
organelle is called the “Golgi apparatus”. The Golgi apparatus is kind of like
the mail room of the cell, so proteins that are produced in the endoplasmic
reticulum are sent to the Golgi apparatus, and the Golgi apparatus can send
those proteins to other parts of the cell depending on where that protein needs
to go. So, if the protein needs to been secreted by the cell the Golgi
apparatus sends it to the outer membrane of the cell and releases it. The last
two organelles to mention are the “Lysosome and Peroxisome”, cells can have
multiple ones of each of these but I mentioned them together because they both
have a similar structure. They’re kind of a spherical organelle enclosed by a
single plasma membrane, and the environment inside the lysosomes and the
peroxisome is very different from the environment outside in the cell’s cytosol
so the lysosomes and peroxisomes are kind like recycling centres in the cell,
that because when cellular components are no longer functional and need to be broken
down, they’re trafficked to the lysosome where they are broken down into their more
basic components that can be reused to rebuild new proteins or other macromolecules.

The peroxisome has a similar function to the lysosome, but it’s a little bit
different because in the peroxisome is the site where reactive oxygen species
like peroxides are reduced into nontoxic forms.


Prokaryotic cells don’t have a lot of structures in them. If you look
down to the diagram,

Here we have a few structures that stand out there’s the DNA that’s kind
of here in the in the middle of the cell, there’s also some ribosomes scattered
throughout their cytoplasm, a long flagellum, a plasma membrane that’s about
all there is to it. They’re very simple cells, these prokaryotic cells also the
way they divide is very simple. They have one circular chromosome, that
circular chromosome will split and then the cell membrane divides in two new
cells that full process is called “Binary Fission”. The few structures that are
found in these prokaryotic cells that I’m going to talk about are cytoplasm and
granules. Cytoplasm is also known as “Protoplasm” is basically a matrix which
means like a surrounding substance that has these different things in it, so
it’s got water, enzymes, nutrients waste and gases. All sorts of tons of stuff
for the cell but also contains those cell structures because it has a cell
structures that’s how the cell grows, how it makes energy, how it replicates so
all those functions the cell does is going to be in the cytoplasm. The most
important thing is that, this matrix that contains all these different
molecules as well as the cell structures themselves. The second structure is Granules;

Granules is to prokaryotic cells like bacteria, bacteria are example of
prokaryotic cell. That’s how the bacteria going to store their nutrients so
that’s kind the important part of what granules do. Bacteria don’t have a lot
of other structures in them so they need a way to keep nutrients handy and
available so they use granules.

The third structure is Ribosomes;

The ribosomes can be found in the side of cytoplasm or attached to the
plasma membrane.

Ribosomes in “Prokaryotic cells” and “Eukaryotic cells” they make
protein, as we know protein is the structure compartment of things that are in
cells so protein help to build stuff. The protein needed to help build the
cell, bacterial cells can contain thousands and thousands of ribosomes. The Cytoskeleton is like a skeleton for the
cell so it helps to scaffold or hold the shape of the cell itself. The next
structure found in prokaryotic cells are bacteria is the plasma membrane. The
plasma membrane acts as a barrier to separate the cell from its environment. Prokaryotic
cells like bacteria so they have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan what does is
it gives real rigid support to the cell itself, it helps and support the
structure the cell but it does allow solute so particles to move in and out of
cell. Endospores are like little capsules when the bacteria go dormant stops
growing, stops reproducing and stops the most civics function but then can kind
of reawaken after a time. The flagella allow for movement not all bacteria have
especially those that lives in water aquatic environments flagella helps them
to swim around, another type of appendage is the pili they are tubes that come
out of the bacteria that are shorter than flagella. They can also be used for
movement like grappling hooks and can be used for conjugation to transfer
plasmids so basically two bacteria can hook up and exchange DNA with each
other, and the pili is this tube that allows them to transfer DNA from one
bacteria to another.

Prokaryotic doesn’t have nucleus, no organelle and membrane bound but
eukaryotes has the nucleus also the organelles, both cells Eukaryotic cells and
Prokaryotic cell both have ribosomes, DNA, Cytoplasm, Cell membrane and some
have flagella.

There is big different size in these cells, the
Eukaryotic cell is bigger than the Prokaryotic cells. The size of Prokaryotic
cell is roughly around 0.1
to 5.0 ?m in diameter and
Eukaryotic cells which are bigger than prokaryotic cells are roughly around 10
to 100 ?m. The small size of prokaryotes allows ions and organic molecules
that enter them to quickly diffuse to other parts of the cell.

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