“American and his soldiers claimed the island as

“American history is filled with tales of great explorers and daring journeys.. While Europeans explorers hailed from many nations … most of the earliest explorers were Spanish (Mitchell 1).” The most famous Spanish explorer that every individual would know about is Christopher Columbus. In 1492, Columbus arrived at the Caribbean island and named the island Hispaniola, which makes up both countries known today as the Dominican Republic, located east of the island, and Haiti, located in the west (BBC). Columbus came in contact with the indigenous people of today’s Dominican Republic, the Taino. At the time the Taino people were broken into three groups: Western, Classic, and the Eastern Taino (Lawler). The Taino people from the Dominican Republic fell under the Classic Taino (Lawler). The Tainos were peaceful people and only turned to violence to protect themselves from other tribes, Columbus and his soldiers claimed the island as their own and slaughtered more than half of Taino population, many of which died due to the diseases the Spaniards brought with them. Due to the fact that the Spanish brought no women on the exploration, they took Taino women as wives, the racial mixing between the Taino and the Spanish resulted in mestizo children. 1496, the Spanish set up colonies naming it Santo Domingo, thanks to the introduction of slaves in 1503. “Santo Domingo, as the first New World’s capital… was home to the first American cathedral, university, paved road, convent, hospital, and factory (Tuider 66).” Seeing the Spaniards proper, other countries wanted to take part. The Spanish were forced to surrender the western part of the island to the French in 1697 after the French took advantage of the attack and destruction of Santo Domingo by Englishman Sir Francis Drake in 1586. The French colonized and claimed the western part of Hispaniola, naming it Saint Domingue, present-day Haiti. Later, in 1795, Spain surrendered the rest of the island to the French for peace. “Dominican Independence Day.” donquijote, n.d. http://www.donquijote.org/culture/dominican-republic/society/holidays/dominican-independence-day.Lawler, Omar. “Taino: Indigenous Caribbeans.” B:[email protected], n.d. http://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/article/section/pre-colonial-history/taino-indigenous-caribbeans/.”Timeline: Dominican Republic.” BBC News, n.d. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1217771.stm.Mitchell Pablo. n.d. History of Latinos: Exploring Diverse RootsIndependence”As the nineteenth century began, movements for independence coursed through the Americas.”(Mitchell 19). 1804, the Haitian Army led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, started a rebel that led to Haiti’s independence from France, giving Santo Domingo back to the Spanish Crown in 1814 (Tuider 66). Immediately, Dominicans’ declared independence from Spain but concluded in Haiti ruling the entire island for 22 years. Tired of the repeated invasions and unjust treatment by the Haitians, such as confiscating property from the Catholic Church, deporting clergy, and cutting off ties to Rome, Juan Pablo Duarte created the secret society called “La Trinitaria”, to overthrow the Haitians. February 7, 1844, Juan Pablo Duarte and the rest of “La Trinitaria” established Dominican Republic’s independence from Haiti by driving Haitian troops from the capital after Charles Rivière-Hérard went home to take office after his presidential predecessor was overthrown from office. Due to General Pedro Santana government rule, Spain decided to come back and claim Santo Domingo, angry citizens caused a rebellion and Spain took back the claim to the capital.Tuider Katherine, and Caplan Evan. Dominican Republic (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing, 2012.Mitchell Pablo. n.d. History of Latinos: Exploring Diverse RootsPost 1960″For Latina/os, as for the rest of the country, the 1960s and 1970s were decades of turbulence and transformation.” (Mitchell 145). Dictator Rafael Trujillo named himself President after the overthrow of Horacio Vasquez, he ruled for 31 years until his assassination on May 30, 1961. Under his leadership, Trujillo introduced industrialization, businesses, and infrastructure (Tuider 66). His rule over the Dominican Republic showed great results in the economy factor with jobs being built and attracting more people to the capital, however, citizens were stripped of their political rights. Trujillo made sure to solidify his power in office by placing family members in government positions and killing whoever opposed him. This created fear in the people and caused some to flee to other countries such as the United States. Following the assassination of Rafael Trujillo in 1961, Juan Bosch, in 1962, a populist reformer, was elected as President of Dominican Republic. Less than a year into his Presidency, Bosch was able to return the Dominican Republic to a democracy and was overthrown by the Dominican military.Timeline: Dominican Republic.” 2012. BBC. May 28, 2012. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1217771.stm.The Trujillo Era.” n.d. Latina American Studies. http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/dominican-republic/rafael-trujillo.htm.Mitchell Pablo. n.d. History of Latinos: Exploring Diverse RootsTimeline 1492-  Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola1496- Spaniards set up colonies, America’s first cathedral, university, and factory were developed1586- Santo Domingo was attacked by Sir Francis Drake, Santo Domingo suffered heavy casualties and was ransomed.1697-  The Spanish were forced to give up the western part of Hispaniola to the French, which they named Saint Domingue, known today as Haiti.1804- Haiti gained independence from France, thus giving back Santo Domingo to the Spanish1814- The Dominican Republic, announced their independence from Spain, leading to the Haitians ruling over the Dominican Republic for 22 years1844- Juan Pablo Duarte creates “La Trinitaria” and gains the Dominican Republic’s independence from Haiti. 1916- U.S. invades the Dominican Republic, taking complete control over the government, overthrowing the president and replacing the military until 1924.1930- Rafael Trujillo becomes President of the Dominican Republic, where he remained in power for about 30 years, until his assassination in 1961.1962- Juan Bosch is elected president after the assassination of Trujillo, less than a year into his Presidency, he is overthrow by the dominican military. Historic Individual(s) For my historical individuals, I decided to pick the Founding Fathers of the Dominican Republic. In the picture from left to right is Francisco del Rosario Sánchez, Juan Pablo Duarte, and Matías Ramón Mella. They were part of a secret society founded by Duarte in his home known as “La Trinitaria”. The men led the group to fight in the struggle for Dominican Republic’s independence from Haiti. With the society led by Duarte, Mellas second in command and Sánchez third, they were successful in leading the coup that gave the Dominican Republic its independence in 1844. They led the formation of the republic even after Duarte was exiled by Pedro Santana who took over control of the government.”Dominican Independence Day.” donquijote, n.d. http://www.donquijote.org/culture/dominican-republic/society/holidays/dominican-independence-day.    Current Event    Between the years 1916-1924, United States invaded the Dominican Republic because of the concerns of Germany using the Dominican Republic as a base to attack the U.S. during World War 1 (Dominican). 750 marines were sent to the Dominican Republic, the U.S. took control of the country’s finances and overthrew the government in order to have a representative to take over and completely replace the military, which was headed by an officer chosen by U.S. government (Dominican). The U.S. takeover of the Dominican Republic’s government was causing an uproar from the citizens and also other Latin American governments. “U.S. Senate hearings proved to be embarrassing when Dominican witnesses argued that the occupation violated international law and contravened Wilson’s Fourteen Points.”(Dominican) Resulting from the outroar of upset citizens and under the watchful eye of other countries, the United States started to make plans to allow the Dominican Republic control of the government and evacuate their troops out of the country (Dominican).”Dominican Republic, 1916-1924.” U.S. Department of State, n.d. https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time   

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