Appert control agents are generally pest-specific and relatively

 Appert and Deus (1982), Anthelme et al, (2006) reported that biocontrol
agent is not effect on environment and non-targets organism. The possibility of
using plant secondary metabolite against insect pests in general and against
the desert locust in particular, most recent are those of Abbassi et al, (2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2005), Ould
El Hadj et al, (2006), Zouiten et al, (2006), Idriss and Hermes (2008),
and Doumandji- Mitiche Doumandji (2008), and Ammar N’cir (2008) and Kemassi et al., (2010).

The desert locust, S. gregaria is a polyphagous pest that
feeds on many plant species of which no aboveground part escapes its voracity
by devouring stems, bark, flowers, fruits and seeds. Its capacity of migration
enables it to adapt to different ecological situations (Popov, 1958; Uvarov,
1977; Lecoq, 2005). Damage caused by the desert locust is a consequence of its
polyphagous behavior, high population density, and aggregation to form swarms.
However, it was observed that the desert locust refuses completely or partially
to eat some plants species (Rao and Mehrotra, 1976; Ghaout, 1990; Latchininsky
and Launois-Luong, 1997; Woldewahid, 2003). The quest for plants depends on
both the capacity of the locust, the characteristics of the plant and the
environmental conditions (Duranton et al.,
1982). Phytophagous insects have evolved to recognize plants with toxic
defensive compounds (Blum, 1983; Rembold, 1994). Several plants species are not
consumed by a large number of insects due to the toxic or repellent and
insecticidal activity due to secondary metabolites substances contained in
these plants (Bruneton, 1996; Jacobson, 1989). The use of chemical pesticides
is the main insect controlling approach against insect pests during the recent
decades but it is not without significant drawbacks, such as the development of
strain resistance to insecticides (Mallet, 1989; Haubruge and Amichot, 1998;
Garriga and Caballero, 2011), handling hazards, increased costs of labor,
concerns about insecticide residues, great threats to non-target fauna, and
both human and environmental health (Van der Valk, 1990; Everts and Ba, 1997;
Bagari et al., 2010). Plant control
agents are generally pest-specific and relatively harmless to non-target
organisms including man (Rembold, 1994). The plants studied in the context of
the research for new insecticidal substances were classified as plants with
deterrent or repellent effects on desert locust (Despland and Simpson, 1999;
Abbassi et al., 2003; Abbassi et al., 2004). The plant species
classified as plants with deterrent or lethal effect on desert locust affect
differentially its fertility, development, behavior and survival. More than 200
insect species were reported to be controlled by the pesticides derived from
the neem tree Azadirachta indica
(Hamilton, 1992). The use of plants as a mean of the locust control without
side effect on the environment can be an alternative way to overcome the
adverse effects of pesticides spraying against pests. Indeed, several researchers
reported that of the effect of plant-derived substances on desert locust gave
satisfactory results, thus encouraging further research to implement an
alternative method to chemical control against locust pest (Nasseh et al., 1993; Wilps and Diop, 1997;
Abbassi et al., 2003). It was
reported that all parts of Nerium
oleander (Apocynaceae) are toxic to man and animals including some insects
(Langford and Boor, 1996; Adome et al.,
2003; Barbosa et al., 2008). This
plant is unpalatable for locust. The diet based on N. oleander leaves halted the development of the fourth instar
nymph of the desert locust, S. gregaria
and caused weight loss due to low food intake related to the repellent and
anti-palatable effect of this plant (Bagari et
al., 2013). In this study, the effects of N. oleander leaves on the ovarian development and survival of the
desert locust, S. gregaria were
studied under laboratory conditions using Brassica
oleracea (which is well consumed by the desert locust) as a control plant.

Plant extracts, thus, represent an
alternative agent for pest control since different studies had shown their
actions against many insect pests as toxicants, repellents, antifeedants,
deterrents of oviposition, growth regulators with low pollution and quick
degradation in the environment (Naqvi et
al., 1992; Bourguet et al., 2000;
Nakatani et al., 2001; Farag, 2002;
Schmidt and Assembe-Tsoungui, 2002; Sadek, 2003; Strand, 2008; Tavares et al., 2009; Chermenskaya et al., 2010; Vogelweith et al., 2011; Lampert, 2012; Hamadah et al., 2013). Neem extracts, as for
example, disturb the enzyme pattern in the insect body as reported by some
researchers (Naqvi et al., 1991;
Hosseini-Naveh et al., 2007). The
possibility of using plant extracts and plant secondary metabolites against the
desert locust has generated interest to the scientific community (Abbassi et al., 2003, 2004, 2005; Ould El Hadj et al., 2006; Zouiten et al., 2006; Idrissi and Hermes, 2008;
Kemassi et al., 2010; Abdellah et al., 2013; Ghoneim, 2015; Ghoneim et al., 2015, 2016).

In
the pest control, research work on A.
visnaga extracts, or some of its chemical constituents, against insect
pests is unfortunately little. The report an ovicidal activity of its extracts
against hessian fly Mayetiola destructor
(Lamiri et al., 2001b), larvicidal
activity against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Amer and
Mehlhorn, 2006; Pavela, 2008), as well as adulticidal and ovicidal activities
against Callosobruchus maculatus beetals
(Tripathi et al., 2001). With regard
to S. gregaria, these extracts
disruptively affected several physiological processes (Ghoneim et al., 2014). In insects, the use of
haemolymph as a medium for controlling insect pests has been made because the
changes occurring in the 

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