Background is believed to be beneficial for encouraging

Background and Literature Review:

the past decade, international and local communities realised the importance of
a sustainable construction industry, and specifically the building sector of
construction industry. it is believed to be beneficial for encouraging societal
change towards sustainable construction in a global context. In this regard,
project managers and construction leaders of sustainable projects are convinced
to transform the subordinates, and influence them to achieve better sustainable

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This study is an extension of the
previous study done about the leadership competences and transformational
qualities as hierarchal, reflective construct, incorporating ten related
components used for the assessment of leadership behaviour in a sustainable
project. The model is used to observe a direct impact of project
managers/leaders on the success criteria for sustainable buildings. Generally,
this study encompasses some of the important components from leadership
assessment in the context of construction project managers in sustainable
building projects. This study has generated a new model to facilitate the
process of sustainability in the construction industry.

With the advancement of
technologies and standardization in architecture, engineering, construction and
operation industries, the idea of sustainable development is getting more and
more important day by day. Leadership plays a key role in maintaining sustainability
in a construction project. This study was chosen because it provides a good
analysis of how leadership competences of project managers is related to the
success criteria of organizations in the development of a sustainable
construction projects. As a student of project management, this study renders
useful insights about how leadership can affect the sustainability of a
construction projects.


The researchers have reviewed a
study carried out about “Leadership Behaviour of Project Managers in
Sustainable Construction Projects” was carried out by Amin Akhavan Tabassi, Maria Argyropoulou, Kamand M. Roufechaei, Rachel Argyropoulou
in October 2016. In this study the impact of managerial competence, and
intellectual competence on project managers was studied. Eight major components
from intellectual and managerial competence were studied, and the outcomes
suggest that the intellectual competence of project managers represents the
most considerable factor on sustainable building accomplishments


It can be said undoubtedly that
sustainability achieved in the construction industry is not adequate, and developing
countries like Malaysia have just begun to meet the challenge of sustainable
development in the construction industry. A research on sustainable project
development and leadership behaviour in the construction industry will have a
positive influence on the development of the project and drive forward a future
for better performance in the building industry in countries like Malaysia.
Most of the research done in the construction industry is done on the design
concepts for sustainability and therefore not enough research has been done in
leadership skills of the leaders in sustainable development of construction
projects. This research has been done to build a model to study the most
effective leadership competence in sustainable building construction to answer
the question below:

Does the Leadership style of leaders Influence the success criteria for
green building projects?

 Relation between sustainable
construction and Leadership

            Although leadership has been outlined as
success factor for the effective performance of an organization, there is still
limited research on the relationship between leadership behaviour of project
managers and especially managers in the construction industry. These leaders
should have the skills set to endorse a positive culture towards sustainable
development. In a recent study (Hwang and Ng 2013) explored the challengers in
green construction projects and they identified in the study the knowledge
areas and the skills that a project manager should have to meet the challenges
of sustainable development. However, leadership style and competencies of
sustainable project managers needs to be further explored for their statistical
relationship with project success criteria.


Leader competencies and success criteria for sustainable Building

Malaysian Institute of Architects formed a Sustainability Committee which was created
primarily to develop the Green Building Index (GBI) and the corresponding
section for authorisation and certification of green-rated buildings in August
2008. The GBI Building rating tools assess the sustainability of buildings
based on six main criteria as demonstrated in Table 1 below. Consequently,
these specific set of guidelines were employed to measure the success criteria
that project managers attained in their green building projects.

The above criteria may motivate
developers and building users to consider the environmental quality of
buildings and associated residents by improving site selection, access to
public transport, improving community services and improving the quality of

Leaders in the organization tends
to be the key driving force to endorse sustainability in the industry.
Therefore, in view of the analysis, the current study targets to explore the impact
of intellectual and managerial capabilities of the leader on the success of a
sustainable building project. Therefore:

Hypothesis 1: Leader intellectual competence is positively related to
the success criteria of the projects.

Hypothesis 2: Leader managerial competence is positively related to the
success criteria of the projects.

The application of
transformational leadership in sustainable societies is a critical area for
professionals and researchers to come up with the local and global changes
needed for sustainable growth.

Hypothesis 3: The transformational leadership behaviour of the project
manager is positively related to the success criteria of the projects.

This study assessed the leadership
behaviour and effectiveness of the transformational leadership of project
leaders in sustainable construction projects based on work of Dulewicz and
Higgs (2005) and Daft and Pirola-Merlo (2009).


participants include 70 project managers from those projects which were
certified by the GBI assessment of Malaysia. Three research officers were sent
to companies in various locations in major cities in Malaysia such as Kuala
Lumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru to hand over the questionnaires to the relevant
respondents and to collect them for data analysis. Out of all the managers 65.7
percent were male and 34.3 % were women. The percentage of different races
were, Malay 28.6%, Chinese 64.3%, Indian 4.3% and other races 2.9%.
Additionally, on experienced level of project managers 20% has 1 to 5 years of
experience, 15.7% has 6 to 10 years of experience, and 64.3% had more than 11
years of experience in the field. 
Regarding level of education, 88.6% had bachelors degree of higher and
11.4 percent had attained a diploma from junior college. 

For this study the sample size is
70 project managers which were chosen from the GBI certified project managers
in Malaysia. The sample is representative, of the study population which are
the project managers of sustainable construction projects.

Data Collection

For data collection,
a survey of questionnaires was distributed among the construction project managers
in sustainable building projects. The questionnaires were essentially based on the
Scale of five measures from one (1) to five (5) depending on the level of

The researchers have not
justified their choice of data collection tool in the study. There is no
evidence found of a pilot study in this study, though the researchers have
extended a previously done study on “leadership competence in sustainable construction
projects” during this study.

In my opinion one of the weakness
of the data collection method is that the results from the study can not be generalized.
The study was only carried out within the sustainable building projects in Malaysia
in a specific context.

The strength of the study data
collection is that it provides numerical and descriptive data which can be
analysed to understand the affect of leadership capabilities and
transformational leadership qualities on the development of sustainable construction


Data Analysis

The study applies partial least
square (PLS) method to evaluate the hierarchal hypothetical model in
sustainable building projects.  To assess
the hypothesised model, Smart PLS was applied to determine the parameters of
the model. Afterwards, nonparametric bootstrapping was applied with 200
replications to obtain the standard estimate errors.

The results are presented quantitively
in terms of tables and diagrams. The study results are easy to interpret, and
they are explained in the next section of this report.

Managerial Competence

               In the study
the prior research done has been extended by conceptualising the managerial
competence as a hierarchical and reflective construct, and its relationship
with the success criteria of project managers in their sustainable projects. The
aim was to discover how the five managerial competence factors identified by
Dulewicz and Higgs (2005) affect the criteria for the success of a sustainable
project. These factors include resource management, engaging communication,
empowering, developing and achieving. Although each of the factor identified in
managerial competence shows a different belief, the whole constitutes a solid
basis for the modelling of the hierarchical managerial competence in a
nomological network. The degree of explained variance in this hierarchal
construct was reflected in its components: resource management (76.9%),
engaging communication (88.3%), empowering (19.7%), developing (82.2%) and
achieving (83%). All the coefficients of progression of the managerial
competence to its components were significant at P

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