Breeding of services per conception,3. Conception rate ,


Breeding efficiency or Reproduction efficiency is a
economic trait measures the reproducing ability of an adult animal .It is a non
heritable trait.

Measuring parameters of
reproduction efficiency are 1. age at sexual maturity , 2.Number of services
per conception,3. Conception rate , 4. Non-return rate 5.Age at first calving, 6.
Service period , 7.Calving interval.

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As per TOMER method the reproduction efficiency

For cows:  ( 95-99%)

Breeding efficiency = n(365)+1020  × 100     


For Buffaloes: (74-80%)

Breeding efficiency = n(365)+1040 × 100


   n-number of
calving, 365 –  Desired calving interval
in days,1020 – Desired age at first calving 
in days for cows, 1040- Desired age at first calving  in days for buffaloes, AC- Actual age at
first calving in days ,CI-Sum of actual calving intervals.

As per Wilcox et al, (1957) : Breeding efficiency =  365 x (n – 1)  x 100


Where, N = total no. of parturitions,D = days from
first to last parturition

-75 to 85 %, Buffalo – 69 to 84%

1.Age at
first calving :It is the time between birth of an animal and its first
calving. Age at first calving is important economic trait .Related to
generation interval .It act as a guideline for easier culling.

Indigenous cattle : 1220 days, Cross bred
cattle:1011 days, Buffalo:1390 days


Influencing factors for
delayed age at first calving are Delayed age at sexual
maturity, More no. of services / conception, Improper Estrous detection aids,
Early embryonic death , fertilization failure, Nutrition status

2.Age at
sexual maturity: It is age or time at which the reproductive organ become
functional & reproduction may occur.(estrum & ovulation).The animal
attain early sexual maturity  will have
long productive  as well as reproductive life.Heifers
show heat when they attain 50% -60% of adult body weight.

cattle-18 months, Indigenous-20 to 28 months,Buffalo-36 to 42 months

3. Services
per conception:
It is a actual number of services required by a female to settle. Quantitative
measure of fertility. Normally animal may need one or more services .General
rule: Less than 2 services per conception.

Influencing factors for Services per conception are Fertility
of male ( Natural service), Quality of semen (Artificial breeding), Female
reproductive disorders.

4.Conception rate:
It is Proportion of animals covered out of those bred. Confirmed through
pregnancy verification methods .Conception rate

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