Chapter most inventions of 2009 in Time magazine.

Chapter
1

INTRODUCTION

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Energy consumption is increasing day by day wihin the
world. These energy sources include fossil fuel ,renewable sources and nuclear
sources in which non-renewable sources of energy,which include enormous portion
of energy consumption, could be categorized into major classification; nuclear
and fossil. These energy soures are causing 
global warming and climate change. Fossil fuel  have been formed from the organic remains of
long-dead plants and animals. They contain a high percentage of carbon and
hydrocarbons. Primary sources of energy used around the world include
petroleum, coal, and natural gas, all fossil fuels. With energy needs
increasing, the production and use of these fossil fuels create serious
environmental concerns. Until a global movement for renewable energy is
successful, the negative effects of fossil fuel will continue.

 

1.1                 
. ENERGY NEEDS AND MFCS:

As we know that we
urgently need a alternaive source of energy.we are currently using fossil fuel
which is unsustainable for us and for our environment that is why many searches
are being conducted for replacement of energy source. And it does not appear
that one replacement will fullfil the whole energy necessity. Some countries
around the world  have made remarkable
efforts to find a piece of cognen solution like Renewable souces , solar energy
and energy produced by wind and water. These efforts proposed a new discovery
of Microbial Fuel cell in which bacteria can be used to produced electricity
from waste water and renewable biomass . This 
discovery has gain much attention due to its uniqueness. It is the one
of the 50 top most inventions of 2009 in Time magazine. This lead to  increase interest in MFC and  raise number of  publications. These systems are very
adaptable and provide much energy in sustainable way but the major improvement
was widespread of this application. MFCs uses active microorganisms as a
catalyst in anaerobic mode for  the
production of bioelectricity. Electrical current produced by bacteria was first
observed by Potter in 1911 and its research domain became wider in 1999s The microbial fuel cell is a bio-electrical system
in which bacteria is used to convert organic material into electricity. The
fuel cell itself is made up of four parts; the anode, the cathode, the proton
exchange membrane and the external circuit. The electrons are pulled out as
released energy during the oxidation process and into the electron acceptor via
an external circuit. The protons pass through the ion/ proton exchange membrane
and react with the electrons during the reduction process in the cathode thus
completing the circuit. This simple process which is common and found in most
fuel cells i.e. battery cells, hydrogen fuel cells can be optimized for an
efficient current generation. The exploration of various materials used in
electrodes that balances efficiency and cost-effectiveness is the key to the
potential large scale use of MFC particularly in wastewater treatment plants
which is hoped to be a power generating plant as opposed to a power consuming
plant

1.2                 
. ENERGY AND THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE:

There is no ‘Magic
Bullet’ for  meeting our current and
future energy needs. There is no question that the release of stored carbon in
fossil fuel is increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in atmosphere,
with increase from 316 ppmv in 1959 to 337 ppmv in 2004.

Addressing the effects
of climate change is a top priority of the Energy Department. As global
temperatures rise, wildfires, drought, and high electricity demand
put stress on the nation’s energy infrastructure. And severe weather  the leading cause of power outages and fuel
supply disruption in the United States is projected to worsen,
with eight of the 10 most destructive hurricanes of all time having happened in
the last 10 years. To fight climate change, the Energy Department supports
research and innovation that makes fossil energy technologies
cleaner and less harmful to the people and the environment. We’re taking
responsible steps to cut carbon pollution, develop domestic renewable energy production
and win the global race for clean energy innovation. We’re also working to
dramatically increase the efficiency of appliances, homes, businesses and vehicles.

 

 

 

 

 

         1.3.  MFCs AND ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY OF THE WATER

INFRASTURCTURE:

Energy
and water are intricately connected. Energy is itself required to make water
resources available for human use and consumption (including irrigation)
through pumping, transportation, treatment, and desalination. Over  two billion people on the planet lack
adequate sanitation and one billion do not have access to portable water.
Energy demands for conventional water and waste water processes as a large part
of the problem. We serve our most part of produced electricity in the
treatments of water. So greatly need a new sustainable source of energy
production in the form of MFCs. And also MFCs
are used in water treatment to harvest energy utilizing anaerobic digestion. The process can also reduce pathogens.

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