Despite in Indigenous Canadian History with approximately 140

Despite the negative effects the White Paper brought upon Indigenous communities, through all the worry and panic, Indigenous leaders came together to fight for their rights, creating Indigenous solidarity. Although the initial reaction from Indigenous communities was an unanticipated uproar, Indigenous people managed to turn their panic into a successful resistance against the white paper, which resulted in Indigenous leaders holding the biggest meeting in Indigenous Canadian History with approximately 140 bands represented. In having this meeting, it created a required bond between Indigenous people in order to pose a successful opposition. This meeting one the beginning of many more official meetings with bands form all across Canada having a chance to voice their opinions. Most Indigenous peoples Canada-wide agreed to disagree with the white paper, as many Indigenous groups agreed that “there is nothing more important than our treaties, our lands and the well-being of our future generations.”1 Which was almost precisely what the white paper opposed to. By having full support from the rest of the Indigenous community, Harold Cardinal along with the Indian Chiefs of Alberta released a document known as the Red Paper, which opposed to the White paper. It declared that Indian status shall not be changed without the consolation of Indians. The department of Indian affairs needed to be updated on Indigenous requirements and ensure treaty and land promises were delivered, “Indian control of Indian land”2 needed to be recognized as already existing as reserves were after all Indian land, the government cannot avoid the fundamental responsibilities it had by giving them to the provincial government, and the treaties agreed to must be respected and updated to comply with Indian needs. Although the Government was not pleased with the success of the resistance from Indigenous communities, they withdrew the White Paper. In spite of the panic provoked by the White Paper, the opportunity to create solidarity was discovered.

1 Vowel, Chelsea 2016 ibid

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2 University of British Columbia ibid

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