For twentieth century attempts to implement this concept

For decades in the twentieth
century in the economically developed countries of the west, the postulates of
the concept of the welfare state were declared as a desirable variant of social
and economic development. As Andersen noted, the strict formulation of the
concept of “welfare state” is absent and, most likely, is no longer
possible (Esping-Andersen, 1990). The fact is that, firstly, in the twentieth
century attempts to implement this concept were carried out and theoretically
justified in different countries from different perspectives, and secondly, the
concept of the welfare state as a program or social doctrine for decades of its
existence has undergone significant transformations. Today, the “welfare
state” for many politicians and scientists is a synonym for the social
needs of society and the optimal combination of free market economic relations
and the participation of government institutions in solving social issues
(Esping-Andersen, 1990). For all the differences and variations in the conduct
of social policy in different countries of the world, scientists have attempted
to identify models of social policy and their classifications. One of the
classifications was proposed by the leading Western sociologist
Esping-Andersen. This essay examines “Three worlds” classification of
Esping-Andersen and explains how it helps us to understand how and why there
are so many differences between the Swedish and US welfare states.

This essay argues that in
general, Esping-Andersen is massively influential in terms of the three worlds
of welfare capitalism. In the work of The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism
(1990), Esping-Andersen gives a characterization to the distinguished types of
welfare state, which, in fact, represent the main models of modern social
policy that exist in the economically developed countries of the West. Moreover,
T.H. Marshall also proposed that the social citizenship constitutes the main
idea of a welfare state (Esping-Andersen, 1990).  One of the most serious social events of the
20th century was the realization of the idea of ??a social state and a welfare
state. For the first time, the concept of a “social state” was put
forward in the middle of the nineteenth century by Lorentz von Stein. He believed
that the idea of ??the state consists in restoring equality and freedom, in
raising the lower, disadvantaged classes to the level of rich and strong, that
the state should “realize the economic and social progress of all its
members, since the development of one is a condition and consequence of the
development of another”. In practice, the concept of the welfare state was
expressed in the form of a set of social programs in the field of social
security, health, housing construction, education aimed at maintaining a
sufficiently high standard of living for all members of society. According to
the Esping-Andersen (1990), the nature of the implementation of social policy
in different countries and regions is determined by many parameters, including
history, cultural traditions, features of economic development, political
system, etc. Therefore, the general model of the welfare state is just a
certain image, some framework conditions. At the same time, for all the
differences and variations in the conduct of social policy in different
countries of the world, scientists have attempted to identify models of social
policy and their classification. One of the classifications was proposed by the
leading Western sociologist Esping-Andersen (1990). Proceeding from the general
principles of the welfare state, the scientist distinguishes three types of
such state, in fact, representing the main models of modern social policy that
exist today in the economically developed countries of the West. For their
characterization and distinction, he offers the following parameters: decommodification
level, stratification of society, state intervention (Manning, 1999). On the
basis of these parameters, the scientist distinguishes three types of the
modern welfare state. Countries are categorized as separate regimes such as;
Liberal, Conservative and Social Democratic (Arshad, 2017). 

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