Geographical can be categorized into six periods e.g.
Geographical LocationDhaka City is centrally located in Bangladesh, the continent of Asia. Great Himalaya in the North and the Bay of Bengal in the south.Dhaka is situated at the Buriganga River, about 200 km (125 mi) north of the Bay of Bengal. Physical Growth of Dhaka City (Reff-6)Dhaka City has developed over a long span of time. The city was under the suzerainty of different kings and rulers and its growth was hindered and distributed from time to time. The growth and development of Dhaka can be categorized into six periods e.g. the pre-Mughal period (1205-1610), the Mughal period (1620-1757), the East India Company period (1758-1858), the British colonial period (1858-1947), the Pakistan period (1947-1971) and the Bangladesh period (from 1971). As society radically changed after British colonial period, Dhaka City underwent drastic changes over the past decades (Dani, 1962:74).Historically, in Pre Mughal Period, the development of Dhaka city started from the southern part, that is, the present “old town” The city began expanding in the west during 1602-1604. in that time, the city covered an area of about 2.20 sq. km. The city gained its reputation as a capital during the early period of the 17th century. As being a capital, it required more space for administrative, military purposes and accommodation.During the rule of the Mughals, Dhaka City grew in a north-western direction. the greatest urban growth took place 1662-1667 and 1679-1689.At that time, the city extended from the Buriganga river in the south to Tongi Bridge in the north, Jafrabad in the west to Postagola in the east, and in an east-west direction. at that time the city had a population of over a million. The city then started to lose its glory with the shifting of the provincial capital to Murshidabad in 1717. At that time the size of Dhaka City was about 4.5 sq. km and the population was about 1 million. Under the control of the East India Company after the decisive battle of Plassey in 1757 Dhaka City became a declining urban centre and between 1757-1864 it had a tremendous decrease in population and area.The population of Dhaka City which was estimated to be nearly 200,000 in 1800 dropped to 51,000 in 1873. Dhaka city again began the development in 1830. The total urban area during that time rose to a total of 14.5 sq. km and the total population was 51,635 in 1867. Dhaka City began in 1858 by the British East India Company. After 1864, the lowland areas in the north were gradually filed for urbanization.Moreover, during that period in order to protect the river bank of Buriganga from flooding and erosion, the Buckland Embankment was completed. Thus the area of Dhaka City was expanded into 17.0 sq. km. Its population increasing to a total of some 90 thousand in 1901. In 1941 the population of Dhaka was more than 200,000 and in 1947, it passed 250,000. it remained as a mere district till the independence of Pakistan in 1947 with a declined pattern.During the Pakistan period, the Dhaka gained momentum again. Improvement Trust (DIT) was created in 1956. It was developed a number of residential areas to meet the housing needs of the emerging elite class. A Central Business District (CBD) was also developed to meet the demand for space required for increasing commercial and government administrative activities. And spaces were fulfilled by the expansion of the city between 1950 and 1960. the city population grew to 718,766 and the area at that time was about 125 sq. km.In Bangladesh period, the urbanization process achieved tremendous growth to meet the needs of the newly independent country’s capital. The city’s population suddenly increased to 2,068,353 in 1974, it began to expand in all directions. The population leaped to 3 million within a decade of the independence of the country covered an area of about 510 sq. km. by 1981. During this period the swamps and wetlands within the city started to disappear quickly and new areas of residential, administration, business and commercial importance began to develop. In addition, slum and squatter settlements also sprang up in different areas of the city. Dhaka City has faced its highest rate of physical and population growth during 1981-1991, with the population doubling during that decade and the city expanding from 510 sq. km to 1353 sq. km.In 1995, a new master plan was prepared for the further development of Dhaka City and the recent construction of a bridge over the Buriganga river has encouraged the expansion of Dhaka City in a southerly direction to the other side of the river.A second bridge which is likely to be completed within the next five years will further increase this process.However, the expansion of Dhaka City is constrained by physical barriers such as the low-lying flood-prone areas around the city. Also, valuable agricultural and forested land will have to be sacrificed if the built-up area is to increase. The population of the city reached to 10.7 million in 2001 and the population growth of Dhaka has been 56.5% in the last decade, which is very high. this population created tremendous pressure on urban life. This has an effect on the urban.