Harasim experiences. Additionally, Jerome Bruner was a psychologist
Harasim (2017) says Constructivist Accepts behaviourist and
cognitive ideass but adds that people build their own knowledge through
experience-based activities rather than being led by teachers. The first
theorist that supported constructivist approach was Dewey. Grotewell (2008)
suggested that Dewey believed that human beings learn through a direct
approach. This means that learners must combine with their surroundings to familiarise
and learn. My role as a coach or teacher would be to serve more as a
facilitator than an instructor (opposite to command style of teaching) Usually,
the teacher deliverers information and the job of the students is usually to
receive this information. I think my lesson plan supports the constructivist
theory because in my lesson plan I am avoiding giving them as much information
as I can. Also, every student is directly involved by interacting with their
environment which creates experiences.
Additionally, Jerome Bruner was a psychologist whose studies
on learning led to the discovery of the famous scaffolding theory in education
(which identifies the importance of providing students with enough support in
the initial stages of learning a new subject). Meggitt (2007) says there are
three stages to this theory: Enactivist (knowledge is stored in the form of
motor responses), iconic stage (knowledge is stored as visual images) and
symbolic stage (knowledge is stored as words). Westwood (2013) says this
Theory, ensures that learners aren’t left on their own to comprehend something.
The support a student needs is removed
when the student is more confident and believes he no longer needs backing. For
instance, in my lesson plan, if a student is learning a new skill (because they
have never played dodgeball), he or she might observe it being done
step-by-step by others. This support is the ‘scaffold’ they needs momentarily.
Each step is demonstrated and explained, and then the student tries it on his
or her own, without the support.
Finally, we have Vygotsky and The Zone of Proximal
Development. Eloff and Eberso?hn (2004) state student can perform certain tasks
better under adult guidance (coaches or teachers) or with teammates than what
could be achieved alone. My lesson plan supports this theory because if a student
is not be able to perform simple tasks when working alone they might become frustrated
when performing the task. A example, in my first drill if they don’t really
know how to execute the task they can observe classmates. By guiding students
and by asking questions the student can fortify what they just learnt.
There are some advantages In Constructivist theory. It makes me as a teacher focus more on
learning through activity (which is more enjoyable) rather than learning by
people telling you information (command style of teaching) Also, teachers and
coaches encourage students to question themselves, their strategies and assess
how the various activities are inspiring their understanding. There are also
some disadvantages to constructivism teaching. Mayer (2004) argues against a
pure discovery approach to learning. There is little evidence it works, and has
failed several times in past decades. Pure discovery allows for too much
freedom, hindering learning.