II. was a United States Army surgeon, took
II. Short Answers Part II (10 points each)
Choose two of the following three letters. Identify (who, what, where, when) and discuss the historical significance of the items in relation to each other in ½ page (single-spaced) or more. What is their relationship to each other? What is their significance when taken in tandem?
B: The Missouri Compromise and Dred Scott
John Emerson, who was a United States Army surgeon, took enslaved African Dred Scott to live on different military posts in Illinois, which was a free state in 1834. He also had Scott post in the territory of Upper Louisiana at the time, where slavery had been forbidden by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. In 1838 Emerson and Scott returned to Missouri. In 1846 Scott won a suit for his freedom against Emerson’s widow in a Missouri court. Scott claimed that by having lived in free territory, he had earned his freedom. This ruling was over- turned, however, by Missouri’s Supreme Court. Powered by various antislavery interests, Scott then started a new suit in a federal district court against Mrs. Emerson’s brother, John Sandford of New York, who was acting as his sister’s voice at the time. Since the case was a dispute between people who live in two different states, it could be heard in a federal court, meaning once state lines were cross the power of the courts became federal. When the federal court ruled that Scott was still in fact a slave, he appealed to the United States Supreme Court.
C: The Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment
In 1863 President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” The Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in America. Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation was not good enough to end slavery, but would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment in order to guarantee the abolishment of slavery. The 13th amendment, abolishes slavery in the United States, passed the Senate on April 1864, and the House on January 1865. On February 1, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln approved the Joint Resolution of Congress submitting the proposed amendment to the state legislatures. The necessary number of states ratified it by December 6, 1865. The 13th amendment to the United States Constitution states that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” The 13th amendment was passed at the end of the Civil War before the Southern states had been restored to the Union and should have easily passed the Congress. The ratification of the 13th amendment meant that America was finally able to recognize the unjustifiable treatment and behavior of slavery. This did not mean an apology for the inhumane treatment of African American, but a start to show how America was moving forward in the process in the error of their ways.