In followed by listening, speaking and writing are

In this part, the researcher tries to give some explanations about the research questions. The research questions are as follow:

1. What are the specific English language needs of maritime students?

2. What language skills do maritime students need to develop in ESP?

4. What types of content, methodology and class activities do maritime students need?

Most of the students in two groups perceived that they needed to master an appropriate level of English before they attend their specialized courses. Majority of the instructors also reported that the students needed to develop their general reading skills and oral communication skills.

A vast majority of the students in two groups agreed that reading comprehension, followed by listening, speaking and writing are the most important skills needed for their marine studies. Likewise, almost all subject-specific instructors stated that students ‘greatly’ needed to improve their reading skill, followed by listening, speaking and writing skills. The subject specific instructors consistently ranked the importance of the four skills higher than the students did. Additionally, the majority of the respondents believed that there was ‘a great need’ to develop every sub-skill of the four skills in the ESP course content.

Almost one-third of the students in both groups expressed their dissatisfaction with the number of students in each class, the teaching methodology used, the method of evaluation in the class, and the content of the textbook. More attention needed to be paid to course design. ESP courses were not designed and/or implemented consistently in terms of syllabus, materials, methodology, and expected English proficiency level on entry. Each instructor offered those courses independently of others. Likewise, although the maritime textbook for the Students of deck and engine, has been published under the supervision of IMO, the instructors did not use their materials uniformly and in some departments, especially where the instructors are subject specialists, instructors either compiled their own materials or selected articles to adapt for their classes at their own discretion. So, some experts must be brought to the scene to make the ESP teaching practice more consistent with meeting students’ needs.



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