# In forced convective heat transfer due to flow

In

engineering and industrial systems buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer in vertical

geometries have several important applications for instance solar-collectors, electrical

and microelectronic equipments containers, petroleum reservoirs, geothermal

engineering, thermal buildings insulation, etc. To discuss the importance of

buoyancy force on fluid flow and heat transfer under various physical

conditions, many studies have been published. The combined effect of buoyancy

force and Navier slip on magneto-hydrodynamic flow of a nanofluid over a

convectively heated vertical porous plate was numerically investigated by

Mutuku-Njane and Makinde 18.The forced convective heat transfer due to flow

of Al2O3–water nanofluid

through a pipe filled with a metal foam was studied experimentally by Nazari et

al.19.

During

the motion of fluid particles, viscosity of the fluid converts some kinetic

energy into thermal energy. Since this process is irreversible and caused due

to viscosity, so this is called viscous dissipation. Viscous dissipation is quite

often a negligible effect in

macro scale systems, in laminar flow in particular, except for very viscous

liquids at comparatively high velocities, but it’s contribution might

become important when the fluid viscosity is very high. It changes the

temperature distributions by playing a role like an energy source, which leads

to affected heat transfer rates. The effect of viscous and joules dissipation

on MHD flow past a streaching poroussurface embedded in a porous medium for ordinary fluid was studied

by Anjali devi and Ganga 21 .The effect of thermal radiation and viscous

dissipation on boundary layer flow of nanofluids over a moving flat plate were

investigated by Motsumi and Makinde 22.The flow of MHD viscous fluid in porous medium through a moving vertical

plate was inspected by singh23. The stagnation point flow of micropolar fluid

through porous medium and heat transfer with viscous dissipation was discussed

by Kishan et al 24