In important than the other AND proven? Twin
In human development, both nature and nurture play important roles. The unknown factor is whether or not we are developed a certain way mainly because of nature, or due to nurture. Nature –vs- Nurture is one of the most well-known arguments in the history of psychology. Individuals argue that we are grown to develop a certain way due to the theory of nature, while other individuals deem that we are grown to develop a certain way due to the theory of nurture. Both nature and nurture theories are supported by scientifically proven facts. We as humans are a product of nature –vs- nurture, and we can see that through examples such as sexuality, depression, and other psychological disorders. The theory of nature contributes more to a person’s psychological and physical development. Nature is more vital to an individual’s development than nurture is. How can one factor be more important than the other AND proven? Twin studies give a perfect example. Professor Timothy Bates from Edinburgh University led the twin study in the year of 2012. He studied more than 800 sets of identical and non-identical twins to see whether or not genetics or environmental factors really made up a personality. The use of twins is important to studies like these. The reason why is because almost all twins share the same home environment as each other. Identical twins actually share the same genetics! Researchers found out that identical twins were twice as likely as fraternal twins to share the same personality traits. This means that their personality traits are not set because of their environment. Their DNA, or their makeup is what influences twins to have such similar personality traits. Twin studies have been a part of science and studies because of the many genetic similarities between twins. Identical twins are put in completely different environments, and their personality traits and actions are recorded. The twins will still share many similarities, although they have not been together for a long time. Some examples are the way twins stand, or little things about their personality. For example, a pair of twins; Sharon Poset and Debbie Mehlman were separated at birth. They ended up sharing common interests, job type, and degree types in college. As we know, identical twins are from the same egg, and shares the same genome. Francis Galton was an English Victorian psychologist and eugenicist during the 1800s, he was related to the famous Charles Darwin. Early studies by Galton and Darwin show that nature is more important to a trait development than nurture is. Both of them show ways that we are a product of nature. But how else are we a product of it? One important way to support this statement is to look thoroughly at “gay” genes. It is believed that individuals who are gay are actually born that way, or that biology plays a large role determining whether or not an individual is gay. “Another line of testing done to support the biological perspective are neuroendocrine studies. The neuroendocrine viewpoint’s basic hypothesis is that sexual orientation is determined by the early levels (probably prenatal) of androgen on relevant neural structures. If highly exposed to these androgens, the fetus will become masculinized, or attracted to females.” According to the website, (https://allpsych.com/journal/homosexuality/) Dr. Christopher L. Heffner states that twin gay brothers share the same genetic markers on the X chromosome. Chromosome 8 also shares the same markers between twin gay brothers. Dr. Alan Sanders studied the genes on 409 pairs of gay twin brothers to justify and conclude this statement. Nature is more influential to an individual’s development that nurture is. Do you believe that mental health disorders such as depression are a product of nature or nurture? The answer is nature. Depression is caused by the neurotransmitter dopamine levels in the brain not being correct. Genetics are also a big cause for depression. There is a chromosome 3p25-26 that raises a big difference in studies. That chromosome was found in families who have recurrent depression. Individuals with parents or siblings who have depression are three times likely to also have it. Heredity is said to have a very strong influence.Although nature is the reason for our make-up and personality, we must look at the nurture side as well; to see what studies are here. There is an early scientist who does not lean more towards the nature side like majority of early scientists when it comes to a person’s personality and development. His name is Albert Bandura. Albert Bandura shows that a child’s environment and the things that they pick up through learning from adults is what molds them. Bandura’s study is called “The Bobo Doll Experiment.” In this experiment, Bandura set up 32 girls and 32 boys into 3 experimental groups and one control group. Each group had a “model” who was either aggressive or not aggressive. The children watched the model’s behaviors with the doll. When it was the child’s turn to play with the doll, they all seemed to learn from the aggressor’s actions and copy them. If the child had an aggressive model, they were aggressive with the Bobo Doll. If they did not have an aggressive model, they were more likely to not be aggressive with the doll. This study shows that developing traits and personality can be picked up from things that are seen and learned in your environment, otherwise known as Bandura’s social learning theory. Within the nature theory, there are reasons as to how people develop and gain certain traits. The nurture theory also gives valid studies for the same reasons. Factors such as sexuality and mental health disorders could be because of environmental factors as well, just not as much as factors from the nature theory. Starting with depression, a person’s life events can lead to the disorder. 177 male adolescents from a juvenile detention center were studied. By using a questionnaire, researchers were able to find out the reason behind all of these young men’s depression. Many of these young men had rejecting mothers. They went through physical punishment, lack of respect, hostility, and criticism in front of others. There was no hereditary information, stating that the young men’s’ parents or loved ones had depression, which is why it can be stated that individuals can get depression due to their environmental factors. Homosexuality is something that can be argued within the nurture theory. It is stated that the direct cause of homosexuality could be more than one factor. Upbringing and environment play a part in developing sexual orientation. Epigenetic changes can also lead to an individual being homosexual. These factors include chemical exposure, childhood abuse, diet, exercise, and stress. An artist that we all know and love: Lady Gaga spoke up on homosexuality in an interview with BBC. She states that that there was a point in time where she was gay, but “…she was not born gay.” The things that were going on around her, such as college, peer pressure, and relationships all had an effect on her choices. Twin studies were also done with the nurture theory. The faculty at the Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology unit at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London did a study on twins and humor. It has been found that sense of humor is a learned trait. It has nothing to do with an individual’s genes. Environmental factors do have an effect on twins. If they didn’t, then each and every set of identical twins should be exactly the same. There are twins who have the same genetic make-up, but have much different personalities due to the preferences of hobbies, music, groups of friends, and etc. Many researchers believe that the real answers will never be solved when it comes to nature –vs- nurture. Is it nature, or is it nurture? Studies from early scientists show that the nature theory effects an individual’s development more than the nurture theory. The nurture theory does have some answers as to why an individual is made up the way he/she is. There is evidence given, and tests taken but it still does not go over the evidence proven for the nature theory. Some examples used were sexuality, mental disorders, and the study of twins. There are many instances of proof, such as chromosomes, genes, hormones, etc. The nature theory fully explains why people become who they are. An individual’s environment can indeed make some changes to a person’s personality, but at the end of the day, it is all genetic.