In open the doorsand let the glucose in.The

In this film we're going to explain how your body processes the food you eatin order to provide all your body cells with the energy they need,and also what happens when you have diabetesand this system doesn't work properly. When you eat food that containscarbohydrateit's broken down in the stomach and digestive system into glucose, which isa type of sugar.sugar. We need glucose from food because that's what gives us energy.Carbohydrate containing foods are things like starchy foods,sugary foods, milk, and some dairy productsand fruit. This glucose then moves into the bloodstream and the body detectsthat the blood glucose level is rising. In response to thatthe pancreas, which is a little gland that sits just underneath the stomach,starts to release a hormone called insulinand it's insulin that helps our body get the energy from the food we eat.The blood stream then takes the glucose and the insulinto every cell in our body that needs it.To make this easier to understand let's look at muscle cells.At the muscle cells it's insulinthat allows the glucose to get into the cells where it can be used for energy.It's a bit like insulin is a key unlocking the door to the cellsso the glucose can get in.That way, the blood glucose levels starts to drop butthe blood glucose level can be topped up at any point by the liverreleasing extra glucose that it has stored. The blood glucose rises again,and again, the pancreas produces more insulin to move with that glucosethrough the bloodstream to the muscle cells, open the doorsand let the glucose in.The body functions best with the blood glucose at an optimum level.It doesn't like it if the blood glucose rises too high.Normally there's a cycle within the body which balances outthe glucose and the insulin level and this is achievedthe food you eat, the pancreas and the liver.However in some people the system doesn't work properlyand they develop diabetes. There are two main types of diabetes -Type 1 and Type 2. In Type 1 diabetesthe body isn't making any insulin at all. This is because of anautoimmune response wherebythe body has destroyed the insulin producing cells in the pancreas.We don't entirely know why that happens in some peopleand not in others. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 10 per cent of all cases.It's most often found in the in the under 40sand it's by far the most common type of diabetes found in childhood.In Type 1 diabetes thecarbohydrate-containing food is turned into glucose as normal. That glucosethen moves into the bloodstream. Normallythe body would produce insulin to let that glucose into the cells but becauseinto the cells but in Type 1 diabetesthere is no insulin being produced so the glucosecan't get into the body cells at all, so the level of glucose in the bloodrises and rises. The body tries to lower the level of glucose,it tries to get rid of the glucose through the kidneys.That's why people who have undiagnosed Type 1 diabetestend to go to the toilet a lot to pass urine.As the kidneys filter the glucose out of the blood,they also take a lot of water with it sothe person with diabetes will get very thirsty.The urine contains a lot of glucoseand that creates an environment where it's quite easy for bacteria to thriveso it's also quite common to get thrush or genital itching.In the same way the blood contains a high level of glucose as wellso more bacteria than usual will tend to breed in flesh woundsand they might be slow to heal. Glucose can also build upin the lens at the front of the eye causing the liquid in the lens to become cloudy.That can mean that some people with undiagnosed Type 1 diabetescan have blurred vision. Because the glucose can't get into the cellsto be used for energy, somebody who's got undiagnosed Type 1 diabetesis going to start feeling very tired, lethargicand unable to go about their normal daily routine. But the body still needsan energy sourcein order to work properly so what it does is it starts to break down itsfats toolsand that can lead to weight loss.So, the main symptoms of Type 1 diabetesare going to the toilet a lot, thirst, thrush or genital itching,slow healing of wounds, blurred visiontiredness and weight loss. These symptomsgenerally happen quite quickly often over a few weeksand come be reversed once the diabetes is treated with insulin.Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 per cent of all cases in thepopulation.It's most common in the over 40 age group in the white populationand in the over 25 age group in the South Asian population.Type 2 diabetes is a little more complex because there are slightly more processes atwork.Either the body isn't producing quite enough insulinor the insulin it is producing isn't working properly.That can be due to being overweightbecause a build up of fat can stop insulin doing its job properlybut it can also happen in people of a healthy weight.So in Type 2 diabetes, thecarbohydrate-containing food is broken down into glucosein the stomach and digestive system as normal. That glucosethen moves into the bloodstream. The pancreasstarts to produce insulin which moves with the glucosethrough the bloodstream to all the body cells which needglucose for energy. However theglucose can't always get into the cells because the locks to the cell doorshave become furred up with fat deposits. That means that theinsulin can't open the cell doors properly.So the level of glucose in the blood continues to rise.In response to this, the pancreas produceseven more insulin so the blood glucose levels continue to riseand the insulin levels continue to rise. This situation is further complicated bythe cellswhich are desperate for energy – sending out emergency signals to the liverto release stored glucose. The blood glucose levelup and up and the pancreas produces more and more insulinuntil it can't cope anymore and eventually it can wear out.As with Type 1 diabetes the symptoms of Type 2 diabetesare going to the toilet a lot, thirst,thrush or genital itching, slow healing of wounds,blurred vision, tiredness and weight loss in some people.The symptoms for Type 2 diabetes come alongvery slowly and some people don't have any symptoms at all.So for that reason, people can live with Type 2 diabetes for up to 10 yearsbefore they realise that they have it. Type 2 diabetescan be treated in a number of different ways. Initially it may be sufficient tomake changes to the food you're eatingand to take extra physical activity or lose any weightthat may be appropriate. But Type 2 diabetesis a progressive condition and most people will need some formof medication to treat ithe

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