Individual The study of Individual differences are vital

Individual Differences:

Definition:

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Ø  Individual differences are the differences or variations among
the individuals in respect to one character or number of characteristics.

Ø  Individual differences stand for those variations which
differentiate one individual from the other. 

Ø  It is the study of differences in psychological variables among
individuals.

 

Explanation:

 

It is understandable that people are different from one
another. But how and why the individuals differ from each other is not obvious
and it is the focus of the study of Individual differences. Even though to
study individual differences appears to be to study differences, how the
individuals are different, central tendency is also studied in this respect.
The main question of individual differences is whether people are more similar
to themselves over time and across situations than they are to others, and
whether the variation within a single person across time and situation is less
than the variation between people

Personality psychology is the field of psychology which
focuses on human nature, unique patterns of individual differences. Many Researches
have been carried out in Individual Differences. The Methods consisted of
laboratory experiments as well as field studies.

These researches on individual differences reports three
comprehensive questions: 1) developing descriptive catalogue of how individuals
vary; 2) applying variations in one condition to forecast variations in other conditions;
and 3) challenging hypothetical descriptions of the structure and dynamics of
individual differences.

Importance:

The study of Individual
differences are vital when we want to describe how the people vary in their
behavior. In different researches, important differences occurs between
individuals. . Individual differences in behavior, aptitude, cognition or
physical factors like the size of body, gender, oldness, and many other factors
can be used and studied in understanding this large source of variance. People
vary not only in their present state, but in the direction and magnitude of
response to the stimulus. This phenomena has placed the field differential
psychology at an significant position.

 

Causes of Individual
Differences:

Following are the causes which brings an
individual differences

1.       Heredity:

The inherited traits brings a change in
individuals from one another. An individual’s tallness, size, hair color, face shape,
and whole  body structure is determined
by the individual’s heretical qualities. Differences in intellectual level of
individuals are also influenced by hereditary factor.

2.       Environment:

The environmental effects are those which act
upon an individual, the internal environment during the earlier stages of
development within the womb of mother and later external environment which functions
from the birth time. Social heritage is provided by social psychological
environment in which an individual born. The socio-economic status, family
background, the communication and interaction amongst the members of family and
in later years peer relation and the environment of school creates a diverse conditions
to determine the individual differences.

The individual differences in personality,
intelligence, performance, activities, behaviors, and in life style are brought
about by the environment. Only the physical surrounding is not included in
Environment but it also consists of people, culture, their norms and values and
civilizations.

3.       Gender:

Because of gender
variation one individual differs from other. Males are sturdy in intellectual
ability. On the other hand females have small superiority over males in memory,
linguistic ability and aesthetic sense.

 

 

4.       Age:

Age also brings individual differences. Ability
of acquisition of knowledge and the ability of adjustment naturally increases
with age. When an individual grows he can obtain improved control over feelings
and can perform social responsibilities in a better way.

5.       Education:

Individual differences are also brought about
by an education. There exists a large difference in the behaviors of educated
and uneducated individuals. All the qualities of individuals can be controlled
through education.

The Big Five Personality Trait Dimensions

The field of personality psychology includes many
different concepts, the main focus is on basic trait dimension that focuses on how
we are constant in our behavior across time and across contexts, and how we vary
from others in our behavioral tendencies. According
to different personality psychologists, there are five personality dimensions, referred
to as Big five personality traits. These personality traits are

1.     
Extraversion,

2.     
Agreeableness,

3.     
Openness,

4.     
Conscientiousness,

5.     
And neuroticism.

1.      
Extraversion-Introversion.

This dimension
explains that to what extent the person is social and how comfortable the
person feels in social situations. The person who is extrovert do not feel any
hesitation in giving presentation or standing up on stage while the person who
is introvert will feel hesitation in going to social settings, they enjoy their
own company, they prefer to be alone because they are not social and talkative.
Extroverts are talkative while introverts are private and alone. Extroverts are
outgoing. It is the characteristic of extroverts that they enjoy group
conversation while the introverts enjoy one on one conversations. Extrovert
people speaks more while the introverts listen more. Extrovert people easily
accept the changes while introvert people struggles with the changes. Extroverts
are more open while introverts are reserved.

Extroverts have following characteristics:

Love
to be center of attention
Starts
conversation first
Have a broad
social circle
Feels very easy in
making new friends
Feel more
energized when surrounded by the people

Introverts have following characteristics:

like
loneliness
do
not feel comfortable while socializing
it
is very difficult for them to start a new conversation
Do
not like to talk others
Thinks
a lot before speaking
Do
not like top be the center of attention

 

2.      
 Neuroticism-Emotional
Stability.

Neuroticism is a big five
personality trait.it refers to how the
person is emotionally instable. The neurotic person is susceptible
to sudden changes in mood and bad feelings. Some people are
emotionally stable while some people have neurotic traits. While listening to
the sound of siren the person who is neurotic might freak out while the person
who is emotionally stable might not even notice the sound of siren. Neurotic
people have distressing feelings and thoughts that are inconsistent to the
actual situations of an individual’s life.

Following are the characteristics of people who are high
in neuroticism:

Feels
more stress and tension.
Takes
stress and tension about different things
They
easily get distressed and upset.
They
experience intense mood swings.
Feel
worried

Following are the characteristics of people with
emotional stability:

They
are Emotionally stable
They
can deal efficiently with stress
Seldom
feel depressed and stressed
They
Do not take tension about different things
They
are relaxed and satisfied

3.      
Agreeableness-Disagreeableness.

It refers to how the person is friendly and tolerant.
Someone who is very agreeable tends to get along with just about anyone, while
someone who is highly disagreeable just argues and argues. This dimension of
personality includes following attributes:

1.      
Trust.

2.      
Altruism.

3.      
Kindness.

4.      
Affection.

5.      
Prosocial behaviors.

The individuals who are high in agreeableness are cooperative while the people
who are low in agreeableness are competitive and manipulative.

Following are the characteristics of people
with agreeableness:

They
have more interest in other people
They
care a lot about other peoples
They
feel empathy for others
They
feel happiness in helping others.

Following are the characteristics of people
with disagreeableness:

They
have little or no interest in others.
They
don’t care about other people’s feelings
They
have little or no interest in problems of other people.
They
insult others.

4.      
Conscientiousness-Disorganized.

This dimension
refers to how the person is organized and on-the-ball. The person who is
conscientious is a reliable person. He always gives deadlines, and keeps
the workplace clean and tidy. The person who is low in conscientiousness is late
always, he don’t make deadlines and does not keeps his workplace clean and tidy.

The Standard features of this dimension are following:

·        
High levels of meditation.

·        
Have impulse control.

·        
Have goal-directed
behaviors.

Following are the characteristics of people
with high conscientiousness:

Devote
time preparing.
Complete
important tasks at specific time.
Give
a great attention to details.

Following
are the characteristics of people who are disorganized:

Hatred
structure and schedules
They
do not take care and creates mess.
Do
not return things and does not put the things back
Postpone vital
tasks
Do not accomplish
the tasks they are given to perform.
 

5.      
Openness-Closed minded.

This dimension refers
to being open-minded. The person who is high in openness is open to new thoughts,
new persons, and new methods of performing things. People who are low in this
dimension are closed minded and they are agree to receive new concepts and
ideas. People who are open-minded feel excited to visit the historical place,
while the people who are closed-minded would just sit in the car for the period
of the visit. People who have trait of openness are more adventurous and they
are creative as well. People who are closed minded are traditional and have
abstract thinking.

Following are the characteristics of people who are in openness
continuum:

Creative
Do
not hesitate in trying new things
Attentive
on attempting new tasks
Feels
Happiness in thinking about abstract concepts

Following are the characteristics of people
who are in closed minded continuum:

Do
not like changes
Do
not feel happiness in new things
Repel
new ideas
Not
very creative
Do
not like abstract concepts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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