Literature technology vendors, research institutions, developers etc. on

Literature
Review                                                                                                                                                            Research Methods 5113-900

Urbanism and emergent trends in modern
living

a study of emerging cities viz. the smart
city, the question of their sustainability

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Team – 3 spices                                                                                                                          Names
– Goutam Vella, Sridhar Yalamanchili, Tayana Ghosh

 

11/10/2017

 
 

 

 

 

Abstract

Smart
cities are a conceptual urban development model based on the utilization of
human, collective and technological capital for the enhancement of development
and prosperity in urban agglomerations. However, the concept of Smart cities is
largely unexplored and remains as an abstract idea. There is a conflict of
ideas between governing institutions, technology vendors, research
institutions, developers etc. on this concept. The buzzword ‘smart’ is
fragmented and actually hinder the clarification of the subject even further. There
is currently a great misunderstanding about what smart cities actually are,
despite the extensive discussion, no agreed definition on ‘smart’ cities exist.
The concept of smart city was born to provide improved quality of life to citizens.
The key idea is to integrate information system services of each domain, such
as health, education, transportation, power grid etc., of the city to provide
public services to citizens efficiently and ubiquitously. Realizing the
significance of effective data collection, storage, retrieval, and efficient
network resource provisioning, the research proposes a high level architecture
for smart city. The architecture facilitates step by step implementation
towards a smart city, integrating services, as they are developed in a timely
manner. Rural population is
converging into urban spaces to relish the fruits of development. From a global
experience it is seen that growth pace of urbanization up to 30% is not very
fast but least up to 60-65% this pace of growth increases rapidly. Developing
and developed cities now a days feel to provide public services in a most
effective and efficient way thus paving way for creation of “Smart Cities”.

Keywords: internet of things, smart city, taxonomy, security,
information system, connectivity, big data analytics, policy making, safety,
framework.

 

 

Introduction

The
smart city design must be citizen-centric. Smart city brings enormous
opportunities and exciting challenges. In general, a metropolitan area can be considered
as smart when city operations and services such as healthcare, education,
transport, parking, and electricity grid are supported through ICT
infrastructure in order to facilitate efficiency and ease of operation. Despite
the complexity of the city’s systems, the architecture must bring benefits to
the people regardless of their ICT abilities.

A
good illustration for an IoT based smart city is provided by the following
diagram:

 

The
primary goals of the smart city include:

·       Offering
digital means for supporting social needs in all daily transactions,

·       To
be laid out on a human scale

·       To
the notion of the information society

·       To
collect information from the public departments and citizens in order to
support sustainable growth of the city.

·       To
present a strategy to mitigate the problems generated by the urban population
growth by using information and communication technology.

World
we know is destined towards innovation. Urbanization has always been an
evolutionary theory and practice, which on a constant notion, shapes and
reshapes through hour glass of time. This paper will focus on Smart cities, as an
emerging trend in urbanism. As per Wikipedia “A smart city is an urban
development vision to integrate information and communication technology and
internet of things technology in a secure fashion to manage a city’s assets”.
The emerging visionaries although perceive the concept of smart cities beyond
limitations and current technology, we perceive it to be a city that is
independent, sustained through renewable resources, technologically advancing,
cutting-edge infrastructure that apprehends the quality of living, harmony with
ecology in urban environment. As much as the science and technology is
advancing through each day of existence, urban cities and towns are falling
behind in terms of safety, policy making, infrastructure and economic diversity
which this paper focuses on.

Policymaking

The
concept of smart cities revolves around making urban environments smart and
technologically advanced in terms of governance, mobility, economy and
environment. Policymaking is the corner stone for building a city through its
physical and social remnants. A good policy making should apprehend the
regional context, circumstances and aid its transformation/ advancement into
its future self. This paper aims to explore valuable criteria (qualitative and
qualitative) in developing policy making solutions.

Proposed
operationalization of a smart city

 –smart cities should capture creative and
collaborative innovation through interaction between public bodies, business,
citizens, in dealing with the next data flood, digital footprint, data trails

-identifying
and tackling new relational complexities between actors

-facing
grand societal challenges in a local context

-offering
new and engaging experiences to citizens.

A
major differentiating characteristic among smart city strategies is whether
they concern an entire country or nation, or they are focused on a more local
level, be it a neighborhood, municipality, city, metropolitan area of even a
region.

Advantages
of local-level smart city strategies:

·       Advancement
on a local level is more effective in making cities smart.

·       Fosters
a competitive economy; competition and competitiveness

·       Fostering
citizen-centric governance.

·       Flexible
in exploring variety of business and governance models to their own profit.

·       Urban
problems are of manageable size and known nature which make them less effort
intensive

Disadvantages
of local-level smart city strategies:

·       Small
and medium sized cities compete for resources against larger and
better-equipped cities.

·       Friction
between existing policy agendas already operating at the government level.

At
one end of the local scale, it has been advocated that strategic regional
planning has a significant impact in smart city development, as its role is to
harmonize and coordinate top-level with low-level policies (Walters, 2011). At
the other end, however, small-scale smart city pilot programs allow the
accomplishment of short term achievable goals and provide a platform to assess
the viability of specific smart city solutions and services in real-life
contexts.

National-level
smart city strategies:

National-level
strategies enjoy state backing; they allow for a broader view and firmer
control over related policies and coordinated resource pooling, and by doing so
they provide a very strong point of reference for smart city strategies.

Advantages:

·       Top-level
coordination and resource allocation.

·       Complementarity
in weak and strong points and joint addressing of.

Disadvantages:

·       Possibility
to fail in capitalizing on the sum of local resources effectively, and ignoring
local needs and priorities.

Urban
development stage: new versus existing cities

Existing
or new cities:

Our
long-lived are already big and complex enough to accommodate the current
population and its activities. Emphasis on regenerating degraded urban areas,
rather than developing new cities. Where as in developing countries, on the
other hand several initiatives have been taken to developed entirely new smart
cities, such as Plan IT Valley (Portugal), Skolkovo Innovation Center (Russia),
Cyberport Hong Kong (China), Songdo International Business District (South
Korea), Cyberjaya (Malaysia), Masdar City (Abu Dhabi-UAE). These new cities are
designed and built from scratch showcasing leading edge ‘smart’ technology and
certifications of green physical planning. 

Safety

On
a global context, urban environments proved to be more unsafe. This paper aims
to explore different offsetting constraints that lead towards crime and
violence. As the trend move towards smart city, and different gadgets becomes
integrated within everyday lives, personal data collection creating privacy
issue is intrinsic.

For
example, an intelligent traffic management app that updates user about traffic
congestion will require that location of the user is collected. To meet the
security and privacy requirements is a fundamental challenge for smart city
system where huge amount of sensitive data processing is involved. Threats from
hackers, intruders, viruses, worms, Trojans etc has immense potential to
disrupt the services and bring down the whole system resulting in enormous
losses.

Infrastructure

Quality
of life is dictated by collective elements such as transportation, recreational
spaces, public and private spaces, business districts, etc. Infrastructure
development of a city is a noticeable feature and an identity of itself. This
paper aims to study and explore the contextual need for a city and their
effects.

Energy
management: Smart energy meters
should be used for energy management in smart cities, they manage the demand of
energy, reduce cost, arrest pollution rendering the environment. Requires help
from IT, tracks all electricity flowing in the system. Energy management system
requires close involvement of consumers, suppliers, energy managers and policy
makers.

Health
hazard management: Health
consultation system should be made online; the process should be simple so that
everyone can use it without any problem. This would reduce expenditure cost and
make people almost free from unwanted health hazard. It would help the
government cutting unnecessary expenditure cost and improve economic health of
the city.

Urban
mobility: Vehicles in an urban
environment cause severe congestion, pollution, accidents and increase in
energy bills. Smart cities should emphasize on walkability, cycling and use public
transport for daily commute, this would reduce pollution levels, congestion and
road accidents. Public transport facilities, footpaths, existing roads,
highways, underpasses, elevated roads should be improved.

Water
supply: Smart cities should have adequate
water; drinking water and water for other needs should serve the demands of the
citizen. Smart water meters are to be installed to monitor the consumption of
water by users. The authorities should be watchful about water contamination.

Sanitation:
This is an important aspect of city planning; lack of proper sanitation would
cause health hazards in the city. Sanitation system should be well planned and
executed, grey water should be treated before draining into ponds, lakes or
rivers. There need to be 100% recycling of water.

Solid
waste management: Waste management is essential to make cities clean and free
from health hazards. Proper collection systems and treatment systems should be
implemented.

Storm
and rainwater harvesting: During a storm event all the water gets stagnant on
roads, this would cause infectious diseases. In some cities storm water and
rain water is drained into sewers which is found ineffective, in rain and storm
events the water should be collected and stored in a proper way which will be
helpful during summer.

Electricity:
Electricity should be available 24X7; each citizen to ensure that it is not
wasted or used in excess should monitor usage of electricity. Smart grid is to
be established and to be integrated into renewable sources to manage demand.

Example: A case study on the existing city of
Amsterdam shows that as, smart and energy-saving technologies
were introduced in the street, both in its public spaces and in the private
businesses along it: smart meters, energy displays, smart plugs and smart
lighting. At the closing of the program, the final results of the Climate
Street CO2 emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 8% (energy saving)
and 10% (savings achieved by switching to green energy) (Sauer, 2012). The
energy management system includes wireless energy displays, connected to
digital gas and energy meters. The objective is to reduce energy consumption by
at least 14% and at the same time achieve the equivalent amount of CO2
reduction (Amsterdam Smart City, 2013).

Internet
and telephone: Strong Internet with 100% coverage should be ensured in smart cities
since most of the transactions are made online, fiber optic connectivity and
Wi-Fi should be enabled in all areas of urban local bodies.

Urban
development: Population increase in
urban areas is at a great pace, to accommodate large groups of people in a
city, policy makers should come up with modern solutions and designs.

Education,
entertainment and good sport facilities: Education enhances the literacy level
in a smart city, citizens with minimum literacy level improves health and
economic growth of the city. Entertainment and sport facilities need to be
provided for healthy and happy living.

Case study

A
recent case study on Songdo, South Korea, an entirely new smart city
development is one of the finest examples which tailored these important attributes
in infrastructure development. It is a $35 billion dollar venture and it
was built from scratch on 1.500 acres (610 ha) of reclaimed land along
Incheon’s waterfront in South Korea, 65 kms from the capital, Seoul. Songdo IBD
aspires to become a business hub and encompasses principles of sustainable
design and technology. The main developers are Gale International, Posco and
Morgan Stanley Real Estate. It was master planned according to LEED-ND
(Neighborhood Development) principles and calls for a synergistic mix of uses.
In this newly-built city, CISCO showcases their Smart + Connected Communities
program fully. The technology vendor employed state-of-the-art technology in
buildings, deploying a network that connects all the components of the city,
including residences, offices and schools

Considering
another case study of the Brussels Capital Region –

Brussels
Capital consists of the City of Brussels, combined with 19 municipalities that
encircle it, with over one million inhabitants, makes up the third region of
Belgium next to Flemish and Walloon region. Each region has its own government,
as do the individual municipalities, next to the federal Belgian government,
and the European layer of governance. Such a political structure poses
challenges in developing a centralized approach for the region. The urban
challenges faced by the city are – severe unemployment and problematic
mobility. The city scores poor on the rankings of a smart city even after
taking initiatives related to ICT and innovative services. One example of this
is the city’s approach to open data. Although Brussels is trying to improve the
urban problems, by looking into mobile apps and supporting open data
initiatives in a limited manner, there hardly appears to be a vibrant mobile
development ecosystem or strong app economy present in the City or Region,
particularly when compared to other cities like Ghent. The aim is to provide
insight in the current state of the mobile service ecosystem in the capital of
Europe and Belgium. Comparing the findings it is seen that Brussels fall behind
in the establishment of a Smart City and the industry is still a very nascent
one.

A
framework is proposed based on a hierarchical model of data storage and defines
how different stakeholders will be communicating and offering services to
citizens. The architecture facilitates step by step implementation towards a
smart city, integrating services, as they are developed in a timely manner.

Proposed Model and Challenges:

The
key challenges for smart city architecture along with the proposed solution is
listed in Table below. IT infrastructure and cost challenges include acquiring
and laying down enormous network infrastructure (Wired and wireless, bandwidth,
connectivity), Smart devices, sensors, kiosks, Wi-Fi hotspots and much more.
The proposed model enables Zone wise implementation of each public service
which does not require entire infrastructure at once. The proposed model
supports both horizontal and vertical scalability. Horizontal scalability means
that more and more public services can be plugged in easily. Zone wise
implementation of each public service provides vertical scalability ensuring
Quality of Service (QoS) at zone level.

 

The
proposed model is based on Service Oriented Architecture. Exposing data
services as web services can make information accessible to a wide variety of
clients where each public service is running its own data center at zone level.

 

 

 

 

 

Proposed
architecture for Smart City –

Figure
1 shows the key layers of a smart city. ICT infrastructure forms the foundation
of a smart city. It is the fundamental layer on which all other components
rely.  ICT infrastructure comprises high
speed wired and wireless network connectivity, high end data centers, physical
space enrichment with smart devices, sensors, actuators and much more. E-governance
layer facilitates the development of strategic connections between various
departments of public sector organization.

Holistic
view – Figure 2 shows the holistic view of smart city architecture. The
approach focuses on managing the city as a system of sub-systems. Each
autonomous sub-system is connected to Central Data Management System (CDMS)
that is fully integrated and interconnected with all sub-systems. All systems
share their data with CDMS which in turn can provide cross domain services to
citizens.

 

Zone
level architecture – Each sub system collects data from different zones across
the city as shown in Figure 3. Each zone maintains its own data center cloud at
site level.

 

Data
management – Depicts water and waste management system for a city. It maintains
a local relation database to store data from sensors and other devices in its
own region.

Open
data Model – It is assumed that huge data will be generated at each utility
city center. The proposed architecture introduces the concept of open data
model. Some of the data collected by utility center is made available to
researchers and developers via API. Freelance developers, Professional
Application developers and third parties will also have opportunities to
develop new analytics tools, new services, etc. Revenue can be generated by
charging fee or by advertising.  Variety
of application will be available for citizens.

 

 

 

Conclusion

Recent trends and
advancements in the IoT-enabled smart cities paradigm have been discussed in
this review along with projecting some case studies and the challenges they
face with the emergence of smart cities. A taxonomy for IoT based smart cities
based on communication protocols has been devised, major service providers,
network types, standard bodies, and major service requirements for the
understanding of the reader. In the end, several open research issues have been
unearthed such as multi-vendor interoperability, low cost, low power
consumption, and security, which demand considerable attention from our
research community. A model is proposed to address the challenges listed, in
terms of graphical framework analysis. Three main aspects of challenges have
been discussed which include – Policymaking, Safety and Infrastructure. Originally,
the concept of smart city evolved to provide improved quality of life to
citizens. The idea was to integrate information system services of each domain,
such as health, education, transportation, power grid etc., of the city to
provide public services to citizens efficiently. This has been achieved in many
cities but forcing a centralized structure for every other native city and
trying to make them “smart” does not always yield better results. The review
discusses all those factors, explaining the advantages and disadvantages of the
smart cities in town planning as well as regional planning levels. In
conclusion it could be said that the government should work more closely in
collaboration with municipalities and citizens to make the system more
efficient and strive towards achieving the initial aim, for the betterment of
the people and to improve their daily lives.

 

 

References

Chourabi,
H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J. R., Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., . . .
Scholl, H. J. (2012). Understanding Smart Cities: An Integrative Framework.
2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
doi:10.1109/hicss.2012.615

Angelidou,
M. (2014). Smart city policies: A spatial approach. Cities, 41.
doi:10.1016/j.cities.2014.06.007

Walravens,
N. (2015). Mobile city applications for Brussels citizens: Smart City trends,
challenges and a reality check. Telematics and Informatics, 32(2), 282-299.
doi:10.1016/j.tele.2014.09.004

Zakaria,
N., & A., J. (2015). Smart City Architecture: Vision and Challenges.
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 6(11).
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2015.061132

Chatterjee,
S., & Kar, A. K. (2015). Smart Cities in developing economies: A literature
review and policy insights. 2015 International Conference on Advances in
Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI).
doi:10.1109/icacci.2015.7275967

Joshi,
S., Saxena, S., Godbole, T., & S. (2016). Developing Smart Cities: An
Integrated Framework. Procedia Computer Science, 93, 902-909.
doi:10.1016/j.procs.2016.07.258

Artmann,
M., Kohler, M., Meinel, G., Gan, J., & Ioja, I. (2017). How smart growth
and green infrastructure can mutually support each other — A conceptual
framework for compact and green cities. Ecological Indicators.
doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.07.001

Mehmood,
Y., Ahmad, F., Yaqoob, I., Adnane, A., Imran, M., & Guizani, S. (2017).
Internet-of-Things-Based Smart Cities: Recent Advances and Challenges. IEEE
Communications Magazine, 55(9), 16-24. doi:10.1109/mcom.2017.1600514

Related Posts

© All Right Reserved