Myopia prevalence of myopia. A systematic review and
Myopia is one of the most
mundane types of visual impairment and reduces the pellucidity of individuals’
distance vision. The prevalence of myopia has been incrementing over the last
few decades and near work such as working in close proximity to a visual target
such as reading book proximately has been widely accepted and shown in
epidemiological studies to be the antecedent of the onset and progression of
myopia. The proposed causal mechanisms behind near work and myopia, including
axial elongation and ciliary muscle tonus are all attributed to perpetual and
elongated accommodation during close-up, thus reducing the accommodation
demands (e.g., reading further away, utilizing reading glasses, and having breaks
during elongated period of near work) is highly recommended for myopia control.
Apperceiving the fact that the incrementation utilizations of computers in
everyday working life and in the edifying system have dramatically heightened
the frequency of near work, modifying the distance between the ocular perceiver
and the visual target during near work might be one of the feasible solutions
in the obviation of myopia. From this perspective, near work should be viewed
as a self-regulatory deportment that is dependent on human factors, such as
motivation and convivial-cognitive credences (King et al., 2013).
Predicated on anterior
study of systematic review and meta-analysis, myopia is one of the five
immediate priorities for the ‘Vision 2020’ initiative as set out by the World
Health Organization (WHO) because it is a consequential cause of reduced vision
in populations throughout the world. The prevalence of myopia around the world
has incremented recently. Several factors have been suggested to play a role in
the development of myopia. Other than genetic factors, environment is
additionally a paramount contributing factor in the development of myopia.
Studies on populations with very kindred genetic backgrounds that grew up in
different environments have shown that those growing up in rural environments
have a lower prevalence of myopia.
cognate to perpetuated reading or near work as well as fewer hours spent
alfresco are associated with a higher prevalence of myopia. A systematic review
and meta-analysis to identify the sodality between time spent alfresco and
myopia denoted a 2% reduced odds of myopia per supplemental hour of time spent per
week after adjustment for covariates. In the study, the sodality between near
work and myopia designated a 2% incremented odds of myopia per supplemental
dioptre hour of time spent on near work per week (Huang et al., 2015).
Most of the recent studies
involve students or children below 12 years old for their subjects as they
still undergoes emmetropization process and this required them to do
cycloplegic refraction to relax the accommodation to get precise power of the
ocular perceivers. Furthermore, in the present study the authentic parental
refractive error is one of the consequential risk factors for the children’s
myopia was obtained directly. It was found that children who spent more time
alfresco inclined to have a less myopic refraction in the low near work
activity subgroup. However, these results were still equivocal because the
effects do not follow a clear dose-replication and furthermore, the interaction
between near work and time alfresco was not consequential (Lin et al.,2014).
This can withal occur
because of interaction between parental myopia and close reading distance. It
is likely that comportments during reading contributed to this sodality.
However, it remains obscure whether children with myopic parents may inherit a
susceptibility to certain reading or whether these are simply a consequence of
following parental reading demeanors, close reading distance, perpetual reading
and others (Li et al., 2015). This can be support by cross-sectional and
longitudinal studies on
Chinese urban children
that found an
sodality between near
work/alfresco activity and myopia/myopic progression (Lin et al., 2017).