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How temperature affects the rate of evaporation 
Erica Njenga

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Physics – 26 January 2018Introduction
What is evaporation?

Evaporation is commonly described as the process which water rises and changes to a gaseous state due to the increase in temperature and/ or pressure. Evaporation is essential to the environment and happens naturally at all times. Ocean water boils at 100 degrees celsius but starts to evaporate at 0 degrees. As said previously, evaporation occurs at all times, the rate at which it occurs is just different. As the temperature incenses, so does the rate of evaporation. 

       
What is condensation?
The particles in a gas have different energies, some may be moving faster that others. Others may not have enough energy to remain as separate particles, particularly is the gas cools down. The come close together to form bonds. Energy is released and this is why when you drape your hand over a liquid emitting steam, your skin can cause scalds: not only the steam is hot, but energy is released into your skin as the steam condenses.
The hydraulic cycle
The water cycle is the complete journey that water makes in its life. The world ‘cycle’ connotes that the waters journey has no start or end point, it is just a recurring process.  The evaporation process is broken up into five stages: Evaporation, Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, Runoff and Infiltration. 

Stage 1: Evaporation and transpiration
The large surface areas of oceans, rivers and lakes absorb the suns thermal energy, warming the surfaces. As the water starts to get hotter, it starts to evaporate, slowly turning the liquid into vapour. In addition, transpiration is the process whereby plants and trees contain water that is also evaporated and lips up high into the atmosphere
Stage 2: Condensation
Condensation is the process through which gas changes into a liquid when it touches a cooler surface. Condensation is an important part of the water cycle. It is the opposite of evaporation. During condensation, the molecules in the matter slow down. Heat energy is taken away, causing the state of matter to change. Winds and air masses move the moisture, forming clouds. They soon become heavy and thus releasing the water to form rain. 
Stage 3: Precipitation
Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. It is the primary connection in the water cycle that provides for the delivery of atmospheric water to the Earth.  The clouds floating overhead contain water vapour and cloud droplets, which are small drops of condensed water. These droplets are way too small to fall as precipitation, but they are large enough to form visible clouds. Water is continually evaporating and condensing in the sky. 
Stage 4: Runoff and Infiltration
When rain or snow falls onto the earth, it just doesn’t sit there, it starts moving according to the laws of gravity. A portion of the precipitation seeps into the ground to replenish Earth’s groundwater. Most of it flows downhill as runoff. Runoff is extremely important in that not only does it keep rivers and lakes full of water, but it also changes the landscape by the action of erosion.

This cycle will repeat throughout the course of the year, due to climate change in certain areas. rain might not fall as much or as little as it was in previous years but the process will still continue. 

Factors affecting the rate of evaporation 

Evaporation happens at different rates due to that there are many different factors affecting it. Some of the factors to consider are: Wind, Temperature, Surface area, Nature of the liquid and Humidity. 
Wind
Approximately 80% of all water that falls as precipitation comes from water that evaporated from the ocean. The speed of wind is an important factor in the rate of this evaporation because the wind moves humid air away and pulls in drier air, thus increasing the rate of evaporation. A more familiar example occurs in a hot shower. The water evaporates into the air and creates steam. If there is no movement of air created by a fan or open window the water will quickly condense on the mirror. If there is an exhaust fan on, this wet air will be moved out of the room and the mirror will not fog up as quickly.
Temperature
Solar energy affects water evaporation by changing the temperature of the air and the water. Warmer water will evaporate faster as the molecules move faster. This is illustrated by boiling water. The steam that emerges is hot and will condense into water droplets if an object is held above the steam.
Surface area
The surface area is an important parameter in evaporation calculations. The higher the surface area the more evaporation there is. 
Humidity 
Relative humidity describes how much water is in the air relative to how much water it can hold. For example, if the air is currently holding half as much air as it can the relative humidity is 50%. The temperature of the air determines the amount of water the air can hold. Warmer air can hold more water than colder air. This is illustrated by a foggy morning in spring. If the ground is wet and the temperature rises, there may be a fog of water molecules until the air warms enough to be able to hold additional water molecules.

Aim: My aim was to investigate one factor that affects the rate of evaporation. The factor that i chose to investigate was temperature. I was to conduct and experiment showing how five different temperature could affect the rate of evaporation.

Hypothesis: My hypothesis for this experiment was that the higher the temperature, the higher the rate of evaporation. The reason that i chose this to be my hypothesis was because temperature is directly proportional to evaporation, if the temperature rises, the rate of evaporation will rise too. 

Variables: Independent variable: My independent variable for this experiment was  the temperature of the water. The temperature will determine how much water has evaporated and the rate of the evaporation. 

      Dependent variable: My dependent variable will be the rate at which the water evaporates. This is because temperature id directly proportional to evaporation and if the temperature is high or low, the rate will either be high or low.

        Controlled variable: The controlled variable for this experiment will be the volume of the water that i am heating or cooling. If i keep the water volume consistent, i will be able to tell how much water has evaporated.

Apparatus: 

1 thermometer
1 weighing scale
1 70 ml beaker
Distilled water
1 Bunsen burner
1 Measuring cylinder

Safety measures: When dealing with the bunsen burner, note that gas leaks can be very detrimental if the gas were to be exposed to an open flame. Please alert the lab technician to set up the burner for you. Since you are also dealing with an open flame, please ensure to tie your hair and keep away and dangling and flammable objects away from the fire. 

When placing the beaker on the bunsen burner sand and taking it off, be cautious that the beaker will be hot. Ask for assistance from a lab technician  if you want to place the beaker on or off. The rater in the beaker will also be boiling hot, be careful when handling the water because you may burn yourself. Method:

Measure 50 ml of water into the measuring cylinder then pour that into the 70ml beaker.
Weigh the beaker before heating but with the water and record that value.
Carefully place the beaker on the stand and push the bunsen burner directly under the beaker.
Place the thermometer in the beaker and carefully wait until the water has reached 90 degrees celsius.
Carry the beaker off the stand and place it onto the weighing scale. Record the value and calculate the difference before evaporation took place.
Pour the hot water down the drain and fill the beaker with 50 ml of water.
Repeat the same steps but with the temperature values of 75 degrees, 60 degrees, 45 degrees and 30 degrees celsius. 
Remember to keep on calculating the difference. Once you have finished recording values for all 5 temperatures, repeat the whole process again until you complete 3 trials. 

Table of results (Raw data):

TEMPERATURE
(CELSIUS)

MASS BEFORE EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

MASS AFTER EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

DIFFERENCE 
(GRAMS)

90 DEGREES

90.53 (g)

82.62 (g)

7.9 (g)

75 DEGREES

90.53 (g)

84.13 (g)

6.4 (g)

60 DEGREES

90.53 (g)

85.56 (g)

5.0 (g)

45 DEGREES

90.53 (g)

88.21 (g)

2.3 (g)

30 DEGREES

90.53 (g)

89.28 (g)

1.3 (g)

TEMPERATURE
(CELSIUS)

MASS BEFORE EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

MASS AFTER EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

DIFFERENCE 
(GRAMS)

90 DEGREES

92.18 (g)

85.25 (g)

6.9 (g)

75 DEGREES

92.18 (g)

86.92 (g)

5.3 (g)

60 DEGREES

92.18 (g)

87.44 (g)

4.4 (g)

45 DEGREES

92.18 (g)

89.49 (g)

2.7 (g)

30 DEGREES

92.18 (g)

91.13 (g)

1.0 (g)

TEMPERATURE
(CELSIUS)

MASS BEFORE EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

MASS AFTER EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

DIFFERENCE 
(GRAMS)

90 DEGREES

91.10 (g)

83.41 (g)

7.7 (g)

75 DEGREES

91.10 (g)

85.77 (g)

5.3 (g)

60 DEGREES

91.10 (g)

86.38 (g)

4.7 (g)

45 DEGREES

91.10 (g)

88.47 (g)

2.6 (g)

30 DEGREES

91.10 (g)

90.51 (g)

1.5 (g)

Table of data (Average results):

TEMPERATURE
(CELSIUS)

MASS BEFORE EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

MASS AFTER EVAPORATION
(GRAMS)

DIFFERENCE 
(GRAMS)

90 DEGREES

91.27 (g)

82.76 (g)

7.5(g)

75 DEGREES

91.27 (g)

85.60 (g)

5.6 (g)

60 DEGREES

91.27 (g)

86.46 (g)

4.7 (g)

45 DEGREES

91.27 (g)

88.71 (g)

2.5 (g)

30 DEGREES

91.27 (g)

90.30 (g)

1.3 (g)

 
Analysis of the raw data tables:

In the first table you see that the mass of the beaker with water before it evaporated is 90.53 grams and the mass after the evaporation at 90 degrees is 82.62 grams. The difference you see is 7.9 grams. Since the temperature was close to the boiling point, the amount evaporated its more. For the temperature of 75 degrees the difference is 6.4 grams. The amount evaporate is significantly less because the temperature dropped by 15 degrees. At 60 degrees the difference is 5.0 grams, at 45 degrees the difference is 2.3 grams and at 30 degrees the difference is 1.2 grams. The lower the temperature goes, the less water is evaporated. At 90 degrees, the beaker said heated for a longer time so more water could evaporate until it reached the said temperature. For 30 degrees, the water was being heated for less than a minute because the water was roughly around that temperature. 
The constant drop of water evaporated is demonstrated in the next table as well. At 90 degrees the difference is at 6.93 grams while at 60 degrees the difference is 4.4 grams. At 30 degrees, the difference is 1 gram. This table shows the same pattern as the other table; the lower the temperature, the less water evaporates and the higher the temperature, the more the water evaporates. 

Analysis of the average data table:

In the average data table the pattern continues to be followed with the increase of temperature and evaporation levels and vice versa. At 90 degrees, the average beaker mass before evaporation was 91.27 grams. The mass after evaporation was 82.76 grams with a difference of 7.5 grams. This is the highest value because it was measured at the highest temperature. The difference at 75 degrees was 5.6 grams and the one at 60 degrees was 4.7 grams. The levels of evaporation continue to lessen as the value for 45 degrees is 2.5 grams and for 30 degrees it is 1.3 grams.

Analysis of the raw data graph and average data graph

In the raw data graph the values are represented by bars, each temperature has three bars representing the three tests that I did. As you can see the three bars representing 90 degrees are the tallest because they had the highest levels of evaporation in terms of grams. The rest of the bras get shorter representing that less evaporation took place. In the average data graph the 7.5 gram average evaporation rate for 90 degrees is the tallest bar as the rest continue to shrink due to the lack of evaporation. 

Improvements

For this experiment I could have tested different liquids other than water to give my research depth. If i had done other liquids, i could have achieved a general conclusion the temperature and evaporation are directly proportional. If i used a wider variety of temperatures i could have also made my research broader. 

Conclusion

In my hypothesises I stated that temperature is directly proportional to evaporation, this is clearly showed in my graphs and in my data collection. If the temperature rises so does the evaporation levels. This was shown in my average data graph where the bars clearly indicate that the higher temperature had a higher level of evaporation while the lower temperatures were decreasing in evaporation levels. In conclusion, temperature affects the rate of evaporation and the higher the temperature is, the water the rate of evaporate will be. 

References

(n.d.). Retrieved January 25, 2018, from https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-evaporation-definition-examples-quiz.html 

E. (n.d.). The water cycle. Retrieved January 25, 2018, from http://www.eschooltoday.com/water-cycle/the-water-cycle.html 

“How Does Wind Affect Evaporation?” Bright Hub, 18 Mar. 2011, www.brighthub.com/environment/science-environmental/articles/110665.aspx. 

“Factors affecting the rate of evaporationMouseover the pictures to learn more.” Factors affecting the rate of evaporation, www.vtaide.com/png/evaporation.htm. 

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