Television music instruments and the one who can

Television as one of the
influential mass media can give a big effect to its viewer. Television offers
some information and entertainments. Furthermore, many Television channels are
raced to get the viewers’ attention in order to get the best rating, they
provide many programmes that have a unique characteristic. For young viewers,
the most interesting TV programme is a Music programme. Net TV as one of the
channel, has a music programme, namely Breakout that the young viewers said
that it is the best music programme in Indonesia because it generally appear with
some abroad musicians as the guests. Typically the hosts used in Breakout is
the one who can sing, play some music instruments and the one who can speak
English well. Most of the hosts who present in Breakout are Bilingual. They
often use Indonesian language and English while presenting the programme. They
often do code switch and it was almost during the programme began until it
ended up.

In this study, the
researcher focus on two names of the hosts, Boy William and Sheryl Sherafina
because those two hosts are the main hosts in that programme.

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This Study is focus on the
language style and the code switching used by the hosts as well as the
linguistic impact toward the students of Junior High School as the viewers. In
general, this study will elaborate what kinds of code switching used by the
hosts of Breakout, what language style they use and what are the linguistic
effect from the hosts’ code switching and language style toward the students of
eight grade in Miksyaful Ulum as their viewers.

In the previous study
written by Laurentius Pradipta Yunanda (2016) under the title “Code Switching
in Indonesian artist Twitter Tweet” showed that artist’s code switch was a
trend. This research exposed that the code switching in the twitter tweets of
Indonesian artists were tag-switching, inter-sentential switching, and
intra-sentential switching. In addition, the Indonesian artists used the code
switching combination in their tweets.

Another study under the
title “The Different Language Style and Language Function between Students and
Teachers in Updating their Status in Facebook Webpage” written by Nurul Adhalia
(2011) showed that the student’s language style was casual meanwhile the
teacher was used formal. And both of them used expressive function language in
their sentence.

From those two previous
research it seems that code switching was a trend used by our public figure in
Indonesia, but there is no later project investigating the impact of the code
switching and the language style used by them toward the viewer’s especially
the viewers on school age. This study will elaborate what kinds of code
switching and language style used by the hosts of “Breakout” as well as the
linguistic impact given by them toward the students of MTs. Milsyaful Ulum at
eight grade as the viewers.

1.     
Theoretical Framework

2.2  Bilingualism

In the beginning of 19th
to the middle  of  the  20th
century , a  great  number 
of  linguists  seen 
bilingualism/ multilingualism as the usage of two or more different
languages, and it has a harmful effect 
on  human  being’s 
logical  and  spiritual 
growth” (Wei, 2000). Then some influential work from Weinreich (1953),
Mackey (1968),  Ferguson  (1964), 
Fishman  (1968),  Gumperz 
(1964),  et  al., 
characters  a  radical change and creates the stage view
positively toward bilingulism (Mackey, 2000), (Ferguson, 1977), (Fishman, 2000).

 Fishman et. al (1971) in Setiawan (2013)
stated that bilingualism may not have the same mastery or equality from the
frequency in both language practise. He said that the fluency in bilingualism
can be based on what language is mostly used in practice. Furthermore, the
expert said that when the language is not often to be used, language
proficiency will be decline (Setiawan, 2013).

2.2  Code
Switching

Wardaugh (2006) tells that people
use a code when communicate with other people. In addition, Van Herk (2012)
shows that speaker use code switching with their own purpose. Furthermore, code
switching is seen as the connection within the same speech interchange of texts
of speech and belonging to different grammatical system or subsystem (Gumperz). Moreover code switching is defined as the action of
changing or shifting from one language, dialect or varieties to another
depending on the condition (Asher, 1994)However, in this paper, the types of code switching
based on Poplack will be the base of the analysis.

 2.2.1 Types of Code Switching

In this study, the
researcher used types of code switching based on Poplack (1980). Based on
Poplack theory there are three kinds of code switching and it was cited on
Romaine (1995), those examples are:

a.      
Tag
switching is an activity when the speakers attaches or adds some filler in the
sentence. The speakers adds a word or words in a sentence without changing any
grammar rule.

b.     
Inter-sentential
code switching: inter-sentential code switching is an utterance where the
speakers switches his/her codes in a full sentence or between minimally two
sentences.

c.      
Intra-sentential
code switching: it happens where the speakers switch the code within a
sentence. The switch is in the form of word, sentence, and phrase.

2.3  Language
Style:

There are some kinds of
language style as written by Martin (2000). 
He classified both spoken and written style into five stages (Martin, 2000), such as:

a. Frozen

This is a formal style
usually used in formal occasion. The form is fixed and based on standardized
language.

 

b. Formal

This is a style stated in
formal occasion too or in a meeting. Standard speech with a low tempo speech,
perfect technical vocabulary, complex and divergence grammatical structure.

c. Consultative

This is a spontaneous style
and sometime people used unnecessary words.

d. Casual

This is a conversation
between friends usually used in daily conversation. The language is informal
and sometime slang and jargon occur.

e. Intimate

This is a style between
members of family without clear articulation, sometimes it is fine to use short
utterance.

2.4  Media
and the Relation with Language Development

Media
has a great influence on children language improvement. In addition the screen
media can be the tool to exposes the language to children (Christakis, 2009).
What the expert said may be happened also for teenagers. In the late 1990s, the
trend of watching TV is increased. Nowadays, the TV program is watched by more
than 90% of children almost every day (Christakis, 2009).
In addition, a Survey done by Kaiser Family Foundation (2010) stated that
children and young adults on 8 to18 years old used about 7:38 hours a day using
entertainment media in television (V. Rideout, 2010).

As
a children, they can be greatly influence by their parent, sibling, friends and
it is known that media has also a great influential matter (F. J Zimmerman, 2007).
In addition Krcmar et al (2007) and Roseberry et al. (2009) also figured out
that kids and teenager can also learn new vocabulary from video by themselves.
Additionally, Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff (2007a) have an argument that
children can learn new vocabulary from some interactive TV programs (F. J Zimmerman, 2007).
Furthermore we will use that background to see how the linguistic effects of
the students after watching “Breakout” music programmed shown on Net TV.

3       
Method:

In this study, the
researcher used the descriptive method in a qualitative research.  Leedy (2005) told that qualitative research emphasis
on understanding of the social phenomenon in their natural setting (P.D Leedy, 2005). Meanwhile, a discourse analysis was also used in this paper. As
stated by Gee (2011), a discourse analysis is the study of language usage and
it sees how the language endorses social and cultural identity.

The participants of this
study are the students of eight grade of Junior High School in Mts Miksyaful
Ulum, Mojokerto, and East Java who actively watch Breakout programme. There
were 5 students participated in this study. They were chosen because they were
the students who watched “Breakout” routinely.

3.1
The data collection and data analysis:

The method of collecting
data used in this study was observation on the music programme and interview on
students to know the effect after seeing the language style and code switching by
the hosts. So the instruments used were observation checklist and interview
note. The researcher had made an observation checklist to observe the code
switching and language style use by the host and the researcher interviewed the
students about what they got or what the effect/ impact after they watched the
programme. The music programme analyse in this study was the special “Breakout”
Program of Coldplay edition. At first, the researcher categorizing the utterances
in the programme into types of code switching and language style checklist,
furthermore the researcher analyse the utterance deeper. For getting the
linguistic impact toward the viewers, the researcher conduct interview to the
viewers of students in MTs Miksyaful Ulum and followed by gaining conclusion
after finishing the phases of analysing.

4.      Finding
and Discussion

In this part, the researcher
will try to answer the research questions about what are the kinds of code
switching and language style used by the presenters of Breakout Programme as well
as the linguistic effect after watching that programme towards the students as
the viewer. In answering those question the researcher reviewed the literature
framework as the basic.

Through the observation and
the discourse analysis, the researcher found that the hosts of “Breakout”
Programme namely Boy William and Sheryl Sherafina were frequently used
Indonesian Language and English too. It was clearly that they shifted their
language very often. Moreover, they shifted from Indonesian language to English
or vice versa almost in all their utterances. As the expert said, those action
is considered as a code switching. Code switching is the activity or action of
using changing from one language, dialect or varieties to another depending on
the situation (Asher, 1994).

 

 

 

4.1     
Code
Switching

Obviously, the code
switching used by the presenters were intra-sentential, inter-sentential and
tag switching. There were totally 25 utterances consist of the code switching
in the sentences. The details will be explained as follow:

4.1.1       
Intra-sentential
Code switching

The intra-sentential code
switching usage in Breakout was the highest, as shown in appendix 1. From all
totally 25 utterances, the intra-sentential were came out 21 times, or we can say
the intra-sentential code switching used was 84%.  We can see it for example of the host
utterance such as “Did you know bahwa
someone in this room right now pernah datang ke konser nya Coldplay secara live”
this data can be considered as intra-sentential because intra-sentential code
switching is focus on language alternation (Indonesian and English) that occurs
within a sentence of a clause border (Romaine, 1995). Boy’s intention is showing to the
audience that someone in his room/programme has ever came to Coldplay live
concert, in spite of saying in Indonesian or English utterance fully, he
shifted the language in his utterance with some English words and some
Indonesian words in his sentence.

4.1.2 Inter-Sentential Code Switching

Inter-sentential used found was
not really significant. We can see it on appendix 1. From 25 utterances,
inter-sentential code switching arose for four times or 16%. The utterance
example was “All right we are back guys.
Dan sekarang gue pingin denger curhatan dari coldplayer tentang Coldplay. Who
wants to share? Oh iya Santi yang udah dibalas Twitter nya 3 kali”. The
host used an English sentence followed by Indonesian language sentence.

4.1.3 Tag Switching

The tag switching used is
only once from the whole kinds of code switching usage by the hosts, and it occurred
on one of the last sentence of the intra-sentential code switching.
Furthermore, the tag switching usage is in behind the other sentence of another
kind of code switching. In the percentage form, the tag switching used was only
4% of total code switching used. The example is “Kalau ini no doubt pasti
trending topic ya, kan? Worldwide men.”

 

 

 

No

Types of Code Switching

The Case of Code Switching

Percentage

1.

Intra-Sentential

21

84%

2.

Inter-Sentential

4

16%

3.

Tag Switching

1

4%

                        Table
4.1 the Result of Code Switching Analysis

4.2 Language Style

In “Breakout”, the hosts are
young teenagers and almost all the audience who come to the live programme were
also teenagers who have the same intention, music.

The language used by the two
hosts were casual language since they used language among friends and they had
to presents the programme relax and joyously. The language they presented was a
shifted language from Indonesian and English or vice versa and they did not use
the language formally. They like using “Yo”, “What’s up?”, and they called each
other by “Elu”, “Gue” that means you and I in English. Almost all of the
language used by the hosts did not use standardized Indonesian language.

4.3 The linguistic Effect of the Hosts toward the
Students as the viewers

Based on the interview done
to the five students of eight grader in Mts Miksyaful Ulum who were the fans of
that music programme, there were some linguistic effects happened to them. The
linguistic effect occurred on their imitation of language used based on the
hosts’ code switching and language style. The students as the viewers were
likely to apply the hosts’ language shifted in their performance. They used the
sentence like “what’s up rek?” and sometimes “elu” and “gue”, and “we are
back”, “amazing”, “you know lah”, “did you know bahwa…?”for instance. The
language they used were also switched. They imitate the way of the hosts saying
and use it in their life. The example is like “Last night, saya sudah
mengerjakan PR saya at home, mam, so difficult e bu yang nomer two dan four”.
The students who were influences by “Breakout”were likely to manipulate their
other friends to use the language and copy what they do. Furthermore, they make
a community between them and their friends who speak like them at school. They
used code switching in their language in order to be looked as a “cool” and
stylist students.

4.4  Discussion

As explained from the
findings we can see there were many examples of the code switching used by the
hosts. The code switching were done by the two hosts. The most significant used
of code switching is intra-sentential code switching. Intra-sentential is code
switching action where the speakers switch the code within a sentence. The
speakers switch their sentences in the form of word, sentence, phrase (Poplack, 1980). The numbers of intra-sentential used is 21 times and
it showed 84% of the code switching the other two code switching like
inter-sentential code switching is only 16% and tag switching is 4%.

The utterance made by the
hosts is a kind of casual language style, because they spoke among their
friends in almost the same age.

Furthermore, the linguistic
effects found in the students as the viewers, the students of eight grader in
MTs. Miksyaful Ulum, the five participants, were likely to imitate the language
and code switching used by hosts of ” Breakout” and they manipulated their
other friends to use the language and made a community between them and their
friends who spoke like them. They used code switching in their language in
order to be looked as a “cool” students. Their imitation of language practise
use by them after watching the programme indicated that they were more likely
to be bilingual. They used Indonesian language in their daily activities at
school as well as English language. However their mastery of English is still
not good, but they practiced a code switching as they took from the music programme
which is the object of this study. This activity was supported by Fishman
(1989) in Setiawan (2013) that this kind of using dual language or we usually
called bilingualism may form a new linguistic behaviour and situation, and code
switching is one of the behaviour stated. The students as the viewers could get
some new English vocabularies from “Breakout” and they practised it in their
real life.

5.
Conclusion

The teenagers are interested
in music programme especially  
“Breakout” music programme in NET TV. The language of presenters used in
that programme were switched from Indonesian language to English or vice versa.
In addition, the code switching used were intra-sentential, inter-sentential
and tag switching. Intra-sentential code switching was mostly used in the
programme. It took 84% of the code switching. And the inter-sentential was 16%
and tag switching was 4%.  As the hosts
were teenagers, the language style they produced was casual language style.

In the side of the viewers,
the five students of MTs. Miksyaful ulum, the eighth grade were influenced by
the switching code and language style. They imitated and absorbed the
vocabularies as well as the way of code switch and the language style.
Furthermore, their practise of using code switching in their daily life seems
to make them to be bilingual speakers between Indonesian language and English
at school, especially when they were talking with the teachers. However, their dual
language usage or bilingualism was still high in Indonesian language although
the English was also used, so it means that their two language mastery was
still not balance. Their Indonesian is better than their English although they
tried to use them both like what the presenter did. 

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