Textile liquid which is visible due to their

Textile industries
consumes large amount of water as a primary medium in various processes like desizing,
scouring, bleaching, dying, printing and finishing. Nearly 15-20% of the
synthetic dyes and other chemicals used during such dyeing practices gets
released as a process discharge and leads to secondary disposal problems. Such
waste liquid which is visible due to their high vividness at low concentration
pollutes our valuable water bodies and agricultural lands (Kabra et al., 2011;
Spadaro et al., 1992). Textile wastewater constituting large variety of
synthetic dyes, supplementary binding chemicals, resins, wax, acid, bases,
heavy metal salts and residual chlorine is arising as a potent environmental
challenge. Residual chlorine combines with other compounds to form toxic
substances which ultimately reduce dissolved oxygen from receiving water body.
It has been shown that textile dye containing effluent is not only toxic to
natural flora and fauna but mutagenic and carcinogenic to human who use the contaminated
river waters (Wang et al., 2009). Such wastewaters have high COD, BOD, other
recalcitrant solid particles and complex chemical compound. The major xenobiotic
compounds dyes are resistant against conventional degradation methods due to
their superior fastness and photolytic stability (Stolz, 2001). Therefore, new cost effective, reliable and
environmental technologies to decrease enormous water pollution needs to be
developed and practically adopted.

Currently,
phytoremediation is arising as a promising green technology for the remediation
of polluted sites and wastewater over conventional physicochemical methods like
charcoal precipitation, ozonation, and electrolysis by gamma radiation,
photochemical degradation. This is an autotrophic as well as aesthetically
gratifying tool for the treatment of textile effluent with low cost and
significant effectiveness (Khandare and
Govindwar, 2015). Microbial remediation strategies are efficient but are
less applicable due to high cost, technical restriction and secondary sludge
formation. Thus, it is essential to employ substitute commercial methods for the
treatment of complex textile effluent which should be efficient, ecofriendly
and economic.

Phytoremediation in combination with other more
traditional remedial methods can be used as a finishing step of treatment by
developing constructed wetlands or hydroponic systems (Schwitzguébel et al.,
2002). This involves cultivation of plants in situ or ex situ with low to moderate levels of contamination for a
required period of stabilization and growth, to remediate contaminants from the
polluted water and soil as well as to enhance biotransformation
(detoxification) of the xenobiotic compounds like dyes. Many reports are now
available on variety of constructed phytoreactors to treat real textile wastewater
e.g. Portulaca grandiflora has been
reported for degradation of Navy Blue HE2R, a real textile effluent and a
simulated dye mixture (Khandare et al., 2013,
2011). Whereas a static hydroponic bioreactor
of Pogonatherum crinitum plants along
with immobilized Bacillus pumilus was
applied for the treatment of textile wastewater (Watharkar et al., 2015). Macrophytes Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb and Ipomoea aquatic were found to degrade sulfonated
dye Remazol Red, Brown 5R, respectively. Further, they were utilised for decolorization
of textile effluent at pilot scale rhizoflitration unit separately and in
combinatorial hybrid reactors as later planted on field constructed lagoons (Rane et al., 2016, 2015). Large scale textile effluent treatment by Salvinia molesta has been reported to reduce
values of COD, BOD and ADMI by 76, 82 and 81% respectively (Chandanshive et al., 2016). Field treatment of
textile industry effluent was also performed efficiently in constructed
drenches planted independently with Typha
angustifolia, Paspalum scrobiculatum and their co-plantation (Chandanshive et al., 2017). Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation
of Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera for the treatment of
real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was found to achieve 79, 72, 77,
66 and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, COD, BOD, TDS and TSS of textile
effluent, respectively (Kadam et al.,
2018).

This work deals
with employment of A. densiflorus to
degrade and detoxify disperse RGFL dye as well as ex situ real textile wastewater treatment using constructed
vertical subsurface flow (VSbF) phytoreactor.
In situ plantation of A. densiflorus
at common effluent
treatment plant (CETP), Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation
(MIDC) area of Kagal, India was carried out to perform soil remediation studies.
 A. densiflorus is an evergreen, perennial ornamental plant. It gives a cushion like foliar appearance
and has long, arching stems densely with dark green, needle-like leaves. It is cosmopolitan in distribution
and possesses massive and tuberous structured advanced root system making it a suitable
candidate for phytoremediation. It is fast growing, self-vegetative and can
easily be cultivated by sowing seeds or separate clump of tuber root as mature
specimen. The plant has economic value as the
foliage can also be integrated as filler with flowers in decorative arrangements.
Yang et al (2009) have shown that A. densiflorus have potential to remove volatile organic compounds such as
benzene, octane, ?-pinene, toluene, trichloroethylene (0–13.28 ?g/m3/m2/h) from air. This study
reveals its dye and effluent phytoremediation potential.

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