The capacitor, DG and capacitor and DG together

The output of capacitor and DGs corresponding
to 24 hrs load variation are shown in
Fig. 2, Fig. 5 and Fig.8. Comparing figures 5 and 8, it is observed that with capacitors, the
size of DGs obtained are lower. This is due to the fact of reactive support
from the capacitors. The total
power loss for summer time varying load with capacitor, DG, and capacitor and
DG together are obtained and are shown in Fig. 3, Fig. 6 and Fig. 9. It
is found that total loss is minimal at bus 30 and bus 6 with capacitor
and DG respectively. So candidate buses for capacitor and DG are 30 and 6 buses
respectively. The voltage
profiles obtained with and without installation of capacitor and DG are shown
in Fig. 1, Fig. 4, Fig. 7, and Fig. 10.  The voltage profile obtained with both
capacitor and DG is better compared to the case with individual presence of
capacitor and DGs. The Capacitor and DG sizes are obtained corresponding to the
minimum loss at the buses 30 and bus 6 respectively. The voltage stability
index before and after device installation are shown in Figs. 11-12. As
observed from the figures with optimal allocation of DG and capacitors voltage
stability index is improved considerably at each node. Also VSI of node 18 (The
node with minimum VSI) has improved from 0.83002 p.u to 0.83954 p.u, 0.90365
p.u, and 0.90717 p.u with installation of capacitor, DG and capacitor and DG
together respectively at 7th hour. VSI of node 18 (The node with
minimum VSI) is improved from 0.66739 p.u to 0.69716 p.u, 0.9527 p.u, and
0.95366 p.u with installation of capacitor, DG and capacitor and DG together
respectively at 18th hour. Improvement in minimum voltage, VSI and
reduction in total real power loss are shown in Fig. 13- Fig. 15. There is
considerable improvement with DGs and capacitor and DGs together in voltage
profile, VSI, and reduction in real power losses. TPL is minimum at 7th
hour and maximum at 18th hour since the load is low at 7th
hour and is high at 18th hour. TPL is reduced from 56.329 kW to
47.031 kW, 21.24 kW and 16.904 kW at 7th hour with installation of
capacitor, DG and capacitor and DG together respectively. TPL is reduced from 254.91
kW to 210.3 kW, 170.59 kW and 161.88 kW at 18th hour with
installation of capacitor, DG and capacitor and DG together respectively.  It is observed that TPL, cost of energy loss
is varies with the load pattern variation. Minimum voltage and minimum VSI are
varies inversely proportional with the load pattern variation

            Optimal
capacitor and DG sizes obtained are given in Table 1. As observed from the
table, the sizes of DGs reduce with support of reactive power from capacitors. The
cost of energy loss with and without installation of these devices is given in
Table 2. Cost of reactive power obtained from capacitor and cost of real and
reactive powers obtained from DG are given in Table 3. Cost of savings is given
in Table 4. It is observed that the total real and
reactive power losses are observed lower with capacitor and DG compared to
single capacitor or single DG placement. The real and reactive power
requirements from the substation reduces with capacitor and DGs and are observed
lower with capacitor and DG together compared to single capacitor or single DG
placement.

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Finally,
it is observed that cost of energy savings per annum at 7th hour is
lower and at 22nd hour is higher. This is based on the load pattern
at the corresponding hours. The cost of energy savings at 7th hour
is 2753.36 $ and at 22nd hour is 27821 $ respectively. There is huge
cost savings obtained with capacitors and DGs in the system.

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