The DRs positive for paracrine factors. Effects of

The main findings of our study are that in pediatric
patients with HLB and HCC (1) the peritumoral DRs positive for paracrine
factors such as VEGF+ DRs, VEGFD + DRs, ANGPT1 + DRs and PDGFC + DRs stained
with EpCAM are observed in HBL and HCC (2) ANGPT1+ DRs correlates closely with
Ki67+ DRs in HBL. (3) Angiogenic maker, expression of CD34, in DRs area is
positively correlated with number of CD34+ vessel and area of CD34+ in
intratumoral area in pediatric patient with liver tumors. (4) There are
positive correlation within DRs positive for paracrine factors. Effects of age,
preoperative chemotherapy and gender of pediatric patients on DRs positive for
paracrine factors are identified in this study. (5) AS
for, relationship between DR+ for PF and tumor grade,

 

In the course of chronic cholestatic liver
diseases, cholangiocyte proliferation aims to repair and compensate for the
anatomic and functional loss of injured ducts. (1) In fact, proliferating
cholangiocytes display enhanced secretory activities by which they compensate
for the impaired function of injured cells. (2-4) In
these pathologies, HPC activation contributes to DRs. (5, 6) DRs
is thought to arise due to a complex interaction between hepatocytes, hepatic
progenitor cells, hepatic stellate cells and extracellular matrix as well as
inflammatory cells and endothelial cells. (7) In liver diseases
condition, it is known that DRs occurs in cholestatic diseases, in inflammatory
diseases and in conditions with massive loss of parenchyma. (8, 9) Furthermore,
a study suggests an important role of VEGFs in support the expansion of HPC
niche by an autocrine and paracrine effects on neighboring cells stimulating
the proliferation of HPCs and endothelial cells. (11) These aspects could
have important implication in liver diseases processes and carcinogenesis. In
addition, It is reported that the positive association of ductular reactions
with poor prognosis of adult HCC. (12) Based
on these reports, we hypothesized that DRs which express paracrine factors are
correlated with angiogenesis and tumoral proliferation.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

According to recent studies, PDGF-C may use
paracrine mechanisms to modulate endothelial cells and perhaps other
non-parenchymal cells including hepatic satellite cells by inducing other
growth factors that act on these liver cells. (13, 14) Our
results show that PDGFC+ DRs is positively correlated with proliferation of
tumor cell in overall liver tumor group while there are no correlations in each
HBL and HCC (Table 3). It remains to be determined whether PDGF-C acts directly
or through paracrine effects to induce progression of tumors in this study.

In adults, sustained angiogenesis is
pathological and characteristic of malignancy, where the formation of a
neovasculature is essential for tumor growth and development. (15-17) One
of the signals linking ductal and arterial development in the liver is VEGF,
which cooperates with ANGPT-1. (18) Besides, two studies previously
reported that VEGF-D showed angiogenic activity on endothelial cells, as well
as mitogenic and motogenic activity on tumor-derived cells and suggested VEGF-D
can be a c-fos effector for tumor malignancy. (19, 20) However,
relationships are still not clear among these angiogenic factors+ DRs and liver
tumors in pediatric patients. In this study, although there are no significant
correlation between VEGF+ DRs and perspectives of anigiogensis and
proliferation of tumor cells, we observed that the group of VEGFD+ DRs above
50% show higher the number of vessel with CD34 positive staining in peritumoral
area compared to the group of VEGFD+ DRs below 50%. The group of ANGPT-1+ DRs above
50% show a greater area of CD34 positive staining in peritumoral area compare
to the group of ANGPT-1+ DRs below 50% (Table 6). Moreover, ANGPT-1+ DRs in
HCC, the group of ANGPT-1+ DRs above 50% show a greater area of Ki67 positive
staining in intratumoral area compare to the group have ANGPT-1+ DRs below 50%.

Nevertheless, the negative correlations between
ANGPT-1+ DRs and area of CD34 positive staining in peritumoral area, between
ANGPT-1+ DRs and area of CD34 positive staining in intratumoral area are
identified as well in this study (Table 4). Although the expression of ANGPTs
in intratumoral area was not tested in this study, it also has been reported
that the expression of ANGPTs is greater in HCC tissues than in noncancerous
liver tissues and it is more intense in hypervascular HCC than in HCC that does
not show hypervascularity. ANGPT-2 expression is upregulated with tumor
dedifferentiation. These results suggest it is the balance of ANGPT-1 and ANGPT-2
expression that regulates the vascular development of HCC. (21, 22) Therefore,
to clarify the relationships among ANGPT-1+ DRs and angiogenesis and
proliferation of tumor cell, it is needed to investigate that the level of
ANGPT-1 and ANGPT-2 expression in both peritumoral DRs and intratumoral area
for future work.

Finally, cholangiocyte proliferation occurs
virtually in all pathologic conditions of liver injury where it is associated
with inflammation, regeneration, and repair, thus conditioning the evolution of
liver damage. Interestingly, proliferating cholangiocytes secrete different
cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides, and hormones, which represent
potential mechanisms for cross talk with other liver cells. (10) Our finding, positive
correlation between Ki67+ DRs and proliferation in intratumoral area in HBL (Table
3), imply these perspective of DRs in status of liver damage including liver
tumors.

In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the
peritumoral DRs positive for paracrine factors are observed in HBL and HCC, and
positive correlations within DRs positive for paracrine factors are identified.
It is also
supported that the DRs correlated closely with severity of fibrosis and
Inflammation in pediatric patients with liver tumor and grade of tumor.l1 
Therefore, our results suggest DRs positive for paracrine factors play a
potential role in liver diseases and tumor progression as a paracrine manner in
pediatric patients with liver tumors.

Related Posts

© All Right Reserved
x

Hi!
I'm Melba!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out