This remember what they have learned. The participatory

This chapter
presents the background to the study, statement of the problem, the purpose of
the study, objectives of the study and the research questions that guided the
study. Again, it includes
educational significanceE1 ,
delimitation, limitation and organization of the study.

1.1 
Background of the Study

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For years
now, education has been one of the most important things to the nation Ghana. Education
is a process by which a society invests in the development of its people
(Pratt, 1980). Information and Communications Technology (ICT) education is not
excluded.

One of the
visions of the Government of Ghana on education is raising the quality of
teaching and learning for effective outcomes. In order to help evaluate
teaching effectively, there have been a quest by researchers to find out
teaching and learning methods which motivate, promote and improve the learning
and understanding of concepts. This effort buttresses the agitation for a shift
from the traditional system of feeding learners with information to promoting
intellectual development through proper participation of students in the
learning course mixed with right instructional media or materials.

Medium
describes the means by which an instruction or information is communicated. “Medium
refers to anything that carries information from a source to a receiver” (Sarfo & Adentwi, 2011). Media forms are
useful for information and instructional purposes. According to Wager (1982),
“the education technology that can make the biggest difference to school and
student is not the hardware, but the process of designing effective
instruction”.  In 1970s, the Learning
Resource Centers were established in various places throughout Ghana including
Saltpond, Offinso, Bagabaga. The purpose of these centers were to equip
teachers with skills needed to design instructional materials.

Research has
shown that how teachers accomplish objectives depend largely upon the learning
theories to which they subscribe. The learning pyramid, even though has been
criticized (Strauss, 2013) is an important tool
to finding out how learning is most likely to occur. According to the learning
pyramid, the more active students are in their learning, the more they remember
what they have learned. The participatory method of teaching, shows a greater
percentage of how students are likely to retain whatever is taught by teachers.

            ICT,
as it has evolved lately has a controlling influence over people’s life.  ICT helps us to better use modern
technologies to capture, process and send data or information. Despite the role
of ICT as a discipline in the curriculum in Ghanaian schools, students have
difficulty in answering some questions relating to some ICT concepts. For
instance, students were not able to respond to some questions the researcher
asked after treating introduction to spreadsheet application with them. They
were not able to find the maximum and minimum values of given range of data,
difficulty in generating charts from some sample data and as well as creating
and saving a workbook after the researcher had taught introduction to
spreadsheet application.

            The
issue pertinent to this research is the need for students learning ICT in Ghana
to see ICT as an everyday practical reality and not just a set of theoretical
concepts with no relationship to real life.

            Many
students in Senior High Schools (SHS) tend to see ICT as unimportant because it
is currently not examinable by the West African Examination Council (WAEC).
This means that more should be done to make ICT friendlier and more relevant to
students even when it is not examined finally by WAEC. This can be achieved
when the teacher employs proper instructional media of all forms and
participatory method of teaching.

            It
is against this background, therefore, that the researcher is interested in
identifying appropriate instructional media or materials while employing the
participatory method of teaching so as to get students actively involved in the
learning of ICT. It is also of interests to the researcher to find out the
problems teachers encounter in designing or getting instructional media or
materials while they adopt the participatory method of teaching.

1.2 
Statement of the Problem

ICT runs
through the curriculum of Senior High Schools in Ghana. Students’ inability to
understand the concept of ICT at the SHS level will make them have difficulty
in grasping the higher concepts at the tertiary institutions.

Students of
T.I Ahmadiyya find it difficult to grab the concepts of ICT taught by teachers
because of the inadequacy of instructional materials used in teaching. In
addition to this, the teaching has been more of teacher centered rather than
being student centered, where students would have been greatly involved in the
learning process. These situations prone to yield little or no performance of students
in the taught concepts. This came to light when second year students of T.I
Ahmadiyya were tested by the researcher through an exercise after the students
have been taught “introduction to spreadsheet application”. The students were
not able to practically find the maximum and minimum values of given range of
data, difficulty in generating charts from some sample data and as well as
creating and saving a workbook as demanded by the researcher.

It against this background that the
researcher undertook this action research to explore the use of instructional
media or materials and participatory method in the teaching and learning of ICT
in order to improve the performance of students at the SHS level.

1.3 
Purpose of the Study

The main
purpose of the study is using participatory method to teach ICT by employing
proper instructional media or materials to improve the performance of Senior
High School students at T. I. Ahmadiyya.

1.4  Objectives of the Study

Four research objectives guided the study. They were to
determine:

1.     
the teaching methods or strategies
teachers at the SHS level use in teaching ICT.

2.     
the instructional materials used in
the teaching and learning of ICT at the SHS level

3.     
the attitude of teachers towards the
use of instructional materials when they adopt the participatory method of
teaching

4.     
the problems faced by ICT teachers
towards the use of instructional materials when they adopt the participatory
method of teaching.

 

1.5 
Research Questions or Hypothesis

The following research questions
guided the study:

1.     
What teaching method or strategies do
teachers at SHS level use in teaching ICT?

2.     
What instructional materials can be
employed by teachers in the teaching and learning of ICT?

3.     
What are the attitudes of ICT
teachers towards the use of instructional media or materials when they adopts
the participatory method of teaching?

4.     
What problems are faced by ICT
teachers in employing instructional media or materials while they use the
participatory method of teaching?

 

1.6 
Significance of the Study

It is the
view of the researcher that using instructional media and adopting
participatory method for teaching ICT concepts will go a long way to improve
students’ performance as well as kindle their interest in the study of ICT in
T. I Ahmadiyya Senior High School.

Besides, it
is hoped that the findings of this research would help to identify problems
teachers encounter in the quest for the right instructional media to be used
when adopting the participatory method of teaching.

The study
would again be used to help enhance the students understanding of ICT concepts
as proper instructional materials are employed and with the use of
participatory method of teaching.

Finally the
study would reveal the performance of students as they are exposed to proper instructional
media while adopting the participatory method of teaching.

1.7 
Delimitation of the Study

The study was
supposed to have covered the entire students in the school. However, the
research was limited to only second year students in T. I. Ahmadiyya Senior
High School.

1.8 
Limitations of the Study

Limitations are aspects of the study that negatively
affect the result of generalization of the study but which a researcher has no
direct control over.

Very
few of the respondents were willing to give reliable information demanded by
the research questionnaire as some of the respondents discussed the questions
before answering the questionnaire.

Some
others who were given the questionnaire did not return them to the researcher.
In addition, some teachers were chose not to fill the questionnaire given.

1.9 
Organization of the Study

The study has been organized into five chapters. The
first chapter deals with the background of the study, statement of the problem,
purpose of the study, research questions or hypothesis, significance of the
study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study as well as
organization of the study. The review of the relevant literature of the study
is found in chapter two, whiles chapter three also deals with the methodology.
This comprises the design of the study, population, sample and sampling
techniques used, instrument and data collection procedure as well as the
procedure for analyzing the data. Chapter four covers result presentation and
discussion of the data. The last chapter which is chapter five involves the
findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

 

CHAPTER
TWO

REVIEW
OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

The main
purpose of the study is to use participatory method to teach ICT by employing
proper instructional media or materials to improve the performance of Senior
High School students at T. I. Ahmadiyya.

This chapter
reviews related information or materials of the present study. The review is
organized under the following subheadings:

1.     
Underlying Theoretical Framework

2.     
Teaching Methods

3.     
Participatory Learning

4.     
Participatory Method and Alternate
Traditional Method

5.     
Theories Under Participatory Method

6.     
Importance of Participatory Method

7.     
Models of Participatory teaching
methods

8.     
The Concept of Instructional Media

Underlying Theoretical Framework

This study
targets students in the Senior High Schools (SHS), ICT teachers as well as the
teaching method or strategy suitable for the teaching of ICT at the SHS level.
Therefore, a teaching method such as participatory and the use instructional
media should be adopted to improve upon the performance of students in the
teaching and learning of ICT (Introduction to Spreadsheet Application), since
the learning of any subject-matter depends on the way it is presented to the
learner by the teacher, the way the learner interacts with the learning
experience presented, and the environment within which the learning takes place
are very essential.

It is in this
regard that this research is designed using instructional media and
participatory method to improve SHS students’ performance in the teaching and
learning of ICT at T.I Ahmadiyya Senior High School – Kumasi.

Unfortunately,
it is not all teaching activities that result in learning, because the teacher
cannot guarantee that learning actually occurs, when the pupils are unable to
perform related tasks effectively. According to Farrant (1990), learning is
concerned with positive change in behavior as a result of the teaching and the
teaching and the quality of the teacher’s interaction with the pupils.

Bigge and
Shermis (1998) in their learning theories for teachers further indicates that
every pupil can learn more effectively if given the appropriate amount of time
and the appropriate instructional opportunities. This suggests that the ICT
teacher must be able to interact well with his/her pupils, articulate
well-defined instructional objectives, and must utilize sound instructional
methods.

Teaching Methods

Discussion Method

Discussion as
a teaching strategy is one of the best ways of helping pupils to understand and
learn ideas (Hake, 1993). The method involves
pupils-pupils or teacher-pupils interactive dialogue, where they talk together
or share ideas about a topic(s) in order to find supporting evidence to a claim
or solution to a problem. Discussion could involve a whole class or in
organized smaller groups to enable both the teacher and pupils exchange
opinions based on valid reasoning. According to Hake (1993), when pupils are
given the chance to talk about things, it becomes easier to find out their
knowledge in that topic. 

            In
order that learners see clearly how an idea applies to everyday life, they must
be given the opportunity to use the discussion approach, and that the teacher
only acts as a catalyst during the interaction among the students (Akpan, 1992). The focus of a
discussion can be on either content-specific issues or general science-society-related
topics just to provoke pupil’s thought and stimulate them to fully participate
in the lesson and also boost their confidence to express their opinions (Erinosho, 2008).

            According
to (Graves, 1985) in situations where
class discussions are frequent, each student develops self-confidence since he
realizes that he is contributing something. This method provides an excellent
opportunity for pupils to practice their oral communication skills. It also
encourages critical and evaluative thinking (Graves, 1985).

Lecture Method

According to Leedy (1980), the
lecture is a pedagogical method whereby the teacher formally delivers a
carefully planned expository address on some particular topic or problem. It a
textbook control which is inflexible with little considerations given to the
pupils abilities.

Demonstration Method

 

 

The Concept of Instructional Media

            The
word media comes from the Latin “medius” which means “middle”. In ge

 

 

APPENDIX A

UNIVERSITY
OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA

DEPARTMENT
OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

QUESTIONNAIRE
FOR STUDENTS AND ICT TEACHERS

Dear respondent,

This study aims at
investigating the use of participatory method in teaching ICT while using
instructional materials at T.I Ahmadiyya Senior High School. The information
you
provide will give background information about students and teachers and also
used to determine the teaching methods or strategies that
teachers at the SHS use in teaching ICT.

Please, kindly complete
all items anonymously and honestly.

All information provided
by you will be treated as confidential

Topic: Using
instructional media and participatory method to improve SHS performance in the
learning of ICT. A case study of T. I Ahmadiyya 2S1 students. 

SECTION
A

BACKGROUND
INFORMATION OF STUDENTS

Please place a tick (?)
or fill where necessary

1. Gender   a. Male   
b. Female   
2.
Age a. below 16 years        b. 16-19 years       c.
20-25years
3.
Do you wish to offer ICT at the tertiary level? a Yes       b.
No   
4.
Do you enjoy learning ICT in the SHS? a. Yes   
    b. No   
5.
Did you have much desire in learning ICT in primary school? a. Yes       
b. No   

SECTION
B

6. Sex a. Male b. Female
7.
Age a. 21 – 25 years b. 26-30 years c. 30 and above
8.
Teaching experience. a. 1 – 6 years b. 7 – 13 years c. 14 years and
above

9. Did you enjoy learning ICT in the J.H.S? a. Yes
b. No
10.
Did you enjoy learning ICT at the S.H.S level? a. Yes   b. No  

11. Did you offer ICT at the tertiary level? a. Yes
     
b. No     

BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF TEACHERS

 

SECTION C
Please
respond to the following statements by choosing one of the following scales of
responses by ticking in the appropriate box.

Keys: SA=Strongly Agree, A= Agree, DA= Disagree,
SD=Strongly Disagree

 

 
Question

Response

SA

A

DA

SD

12.
Teachers prefer the traditional method of teaching ICT.

 

 

 

 

13. Do SHS teachers employ the participatory method during
ICT lessons?

 

 

 

 

14. Participatory method influence students’ interest and
motivation in the learning of ICT.

 

 

 

 

15. Do students in participatory learning environment
outperform students in the classroom where traditional teaching strategies
are used?

 

 

 

 

16. Do you think participatory learning strategies
positively affect content literacy in the ICT classroom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Akpan, O. E.
(1992). Towars Creative Science Teaching and Learning in West African
Schools. . Cape Coast Catholic Mission Press.
Bigge, M., &
Shermis, S. (1998). Learning Theories for Teachers. Anderson Wesley
Logman, Inc. 6th ed.
Erinosho, S. Y.
(2008). Teaching Science in Seconday Schhols: A Methodology Handbook.
Ibadan: Polygraphics Ventures.
Hake. (1993). The
Scientific study of personality. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul.
Sarfo, K. F.,
& Adentwi, I. K. (2011). Educational Technology (Instructional
Technology). Kumasi: Wilas Press Limited.
Strauss, V.
(2013). Why the “learning pyramid” is wrong. Retrieved from
http:///www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/03/06/why-the-learning-pyramid-is-wrong/
 

 

 

 E1Should
make sure content includes “educational significance”

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